However, there are no authentic data on the extent of people displaced as a result of the armed struggle. Some government employees have already been killed for not listening to the ultimatum in recent months.
The Nature and Extent of Conflict-induced IDPs in Nepal
Causes and Types of IDPs
The majority of them are economically well off and have no financial problem, even if they are displaced. The other groups of displaced persons represent the poor people of the villages, people who are mainly targeted by government security forces because they are suspected of being Maoists or their sympathizers.
Patterns of Displacement
It is believed that hundreds of people have already been displaced from the region and this could be the beginning of a larger crisis (IRIN 2007).
People Displaced to India
While the number of people infected with HIV/AIDS has increased, prevention and awareness work has declined in Nepal due to the conflict (Singh et al 2005). Therefore, the problem becomes even more complicated due to the prevalence of an open border between these two countries.
Problem of IDPs
The IDPs in the urban areas continue to face difficult living conditions in urban areas where a large majority of IDPs have sought shelter in recent years. Most IDPs, who often belong to the farming community and are unprepared to live in the urban areas, engage in low-paid labor-intensive work.
Government Response to the Problem of IDPs
Section E, no. 157 of the 2007 budget speech specifically mentions assistance and rehabilitation of internally displaced persons. However, the 2007 National Policy on Internally Displaced Persons was able to incorporate the spirit of the UN Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement.
Maoists’ Response to the Problem of IDPs
IDP Policy In February 2007, the mandate to deal with IDP issues was shifted from the Ministry of Internal Affairs to the newly formed Ministry of Peace and Reconstruction. However, the government has not been able to internalize the gravity of the plight of IDPs and its potential implications for the upcoming Constituent Assembly elections and has so far failed to develop an effective implementation mechanism to materialize the spirit of these documents in action. The government's response to the internal displacement crisis is characterized as discriminatory, directionless, inadequate and sometimes non-existent.
Many recipients were subjected to "security vulnerability" rather than "economic vulnerability", which left the economically vulnerable deprived of access to the government's aid package. In addition, the Maoist youth organization Young Communist League (YCL) is also hindering the return of IDPs in many places as their hegemony in the area still persists. Therefore, the commitment expressed by the Maoist leadership through various documents has not been fully implemented at the local level, which is further exacerbated by the lack of a credible local security mechanism to ensure the safety of IDPs and facilitate the return process that starts on the ground alone. transfers up to the place of origin.
International Response to the Problem of IDPs
Despite the CPN-M central leadership's commitment to return ownership of seized land to the rightful owners, land seizures continued, including in Bardia, Kailali and Kanchanpur as well as many other districts.
National IDP Policy 2007
The policy has a strategy for developing an IEC mechanism to minimize the negative impacts that may arise in the future as a result of internal displacement, formulating and implementing an appropriate rehabilitation plan to encourage the voluntary return of displaced persons and strengthening the capacities of governmental and non-governmental organizations working in the cases of displaced persons for better policy implementation. Rehabilitation policies are basically aimed at providing assistance to conflict-induced displaced persons for their return to their place of birth, settling in the place of displaced persons or rehabilitation in another part of the country, while assistance will be delivered through targeted programs to those displaced by natural disasters. with an appropriate security mechanism at the rehabilitation sites. Participation of internally displaced persons, especially women, will be prioritized during the return process and necessary mechanisms will be developed to facilitate reconciliation in societies.
However, there is still no change in the policy document regarding the change of leadership in this matter. However, in the absence of Peace Councils or Peace Committees proposed earlier, this committee is also chaired by the District Chief. Identification criteria have been developed - based on the definition of IDPs as mentioned in the policy document.
Judicial and other Mechanisms
The policy document has given responsibility for implementation, monitoring and evaluation to the Ministry of the Interior. The document provides for the Central Steering Committee chaired by the Minister of Home Affairs, the Central Program Coordination Committee chaired by the Chief Secretary to the Government of Nepal and the Secretary of the then Peace Secretariat, and the District Program Coordination Committee chaired by the Chief District Officer. After the establishment of the Ministry of Peace and Reconstruction, the responsibility for dealing with the issue of internally displaced persons has been shifted to the latter.
Furthermore, the institutional mechanism developed to implement the policy gives the implementation authority to the district body of the Ministry of Interior and the question of coordination between the two ministries at the center remains unanswered, while the mechanism through which the Ministry of Peace and Reconstruction monitors the progress of the work of the officials of the Ministry of Interior at the district level remains unanswered. remains unclear. The policy document also formulated some mechanisms and criteria for the identification of IDPs displaced for various reasons through the District Level IDP Identification Committee headed by the head of the Local Peace Councils or Local Peace Committees.
Relevance of UN Guiding Principles
However, national governments in developing countries in the Americas, Africa and Asia have not readily embraced the spirit of the Guiding Principles (The Brookings Institution 1999), and Nepal is no exception. The seriousness of the problem of internal displacement was felt as early as 1995, when people were displaced due to politically motivated coercion by the then Nepali Congress government. Before that, people were not aware of the problem of displacement, although displacements due to development and disasters were recorded as early as the 1960s.
This paved the way for a biased and unethical perspective of the then government on the issue of IDPs in Nepal. The CPN-M also classified IDPs into three different groups that violate the human rights of a person's freedom of mobility and survival, thereby ignoring the spirit of the UN guidelines. Due to the rapid progress in the peace process and the strong pressure from the national and international community, the government implemented a new IDP policy in Nepal in tandem with the spirit of the UN guidelines.
The Challenges Ahead
Their land is cultivated by some other people in the villages with the permission of the rebels. As already mentioned, the government has already endorsed the National IDP Policy 2007 with the consent of the Eight-Party Alliance. One of the serious challenges the government is facing is that there is no proper mechanism to implement it effectively.
The government has been quite slow in preparing the ground for the effective and efficient implementation of the IDP Policy. No efforts have been made by the government to change the popular perception of IDPs among ordinary developed citizens due to the previous definition of IDPs formulated by the autocratic government as well as the National IDP Policy 2006. Many of the promises made by the government have remained mere lip service until today.
Conclusions and Recommendations
The indifference shown by the government and its actors and the failure to build on the implementation part of the policy justifies such a claim. There is an urgent need to come out with a mechanism to implement the IDP policy in practice to look for the lasting solution to the problem. There is a need to identify the security vulnerability and economic vulnerability of IDPs and to address such vulnerability with priority.
There is also a need for the formulation of special legal provisions for the protection of the human rights of IDPs at all stages of resettlement. The government should draw up a National Plan for the Rehabilitation of IDPs, which seeks a long-term solution to the internal displacement caused by all means. IRIN, the humanitarian news and analysis service of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA).
Finland’s Immigration Policy and its Dilemmas 1
Priyanca Mathur Velath and Nanda Kishore
The number of 2,636 asylum seekers in the 1980s jumped to 3,634 new immigrants in 1992 alone (Teirmaa 2006). Somalis started arriving in the late 1980s and are today the largest group of refugees, followed by former Yugoslavians and then Iraqis (Bergman 2007). Nevertheless, the total number of asylum seekers in Finland is one of the lowest in the EU and Europe. 7 Samuel Simo, 'New Aliens Act Changed Finland's Permit Procedures', CIMO, www.cimo.fi/dman/.
Most of the asylum seekers who came to the Tampere reception center were mostly Afghans, Somalis and Iraqis. Simo, Samuel: 'The New Aliens Act has Changed Finish Permit Procedures', CIMO, www.cimo.fi/dman/. The decision of the ↓ Directorate of Immigration Directorate of Immigration. is not reversed is reversed ↓. The DOI grants the ↓ Residence permit.
Lesson in hygiene in Talimi Haq
My task of exploring the city of immigrants became a journey of soul-searching—at Nancy's (quoted in Edkins's terms, a task to engage with "how we are all beyond and before ourselves." Community has to do with being with, and as Nancy says, "the common, having in common or being in common, excludes inner unity, existence, and presence in and for itself." Before "I" and "you," " self" is like a "we" that is neither a collective subject nor
In the strict sense of the word, these photos were not actually taken, but presented themselves to me, because the people in these portraits are in their everydayness. The appearance of myself in the eyes of these people was a strange sensation, because I expected to find strangers, unfamiliarity and otherness. The mutual gaze, that of the iconic migrant and myself as a stranger, questions “the stability of everyday existence” (Edkins 2005:367) and leaves me with traces and hints of what it can mean to be with many.