I would like to thank my friends, laboratory colleagues and my well-wishers for providing me with a healthy research environment. Finally, I would like to thank my family, who have showered me with endless love, care and encouragement throughout my life.
MATERIALS AND METHOD
CHAPTER 4. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON CHEMICAL LOOPING COMBUSTION USING COAL AND RICE STRAW WITH
USE OF WASTE E-WASTE AS OXYGEN CARRIER IN CO-CLC TECHNOLOGY OXYGEN CARRIER IN CO-CLC TECHNOLOGY.
CHAPTER 6. TECHNO-ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF ELECTRONIC WASTE BASED OXYGEN CARRIERS FOR CLC
CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK
C HAPTER 1
- Current scenario of energy production in India
- Carbon capture and storage (CCS) potential in India
- Carbon capture technologies
- Chemical looping combustion (CLC)
- Organization of the Thesis
Part of the output stream from the FR is recycled to the FR for gasification of solid fuels (Wei et al., 2021). Of the total stock, WEEE represents 3% of PCB waste (Flandinet et al., 2012).
L ITERATURE R EVIEW
Moreover, Cu has the low melting point (1085 ℃) that can lead to agglomeration problems in the CLC reactors (Qin et al., 2012). However, an oxygen polishing step is usually required due to the presence of unconverted volatiles and carbon (Wang et al., 2021).
It indicates the reactivity of the generated solid fuel syngas with metal oxides in the FR. It is defined as the ratio of the oxygen used for the combustion of solid fuels to the total oxygen supplied in the form of metal oxides for complete combustion.
Choice of reactors
Thus, fluidized bed condition was preferred over fixed bed operation for solid gasification fuels (Hasanzadeh et al., 2021, Han & Kim, 2008). These results suggest that the fluidized bed reactor should be preferred for the gasification of waste plastic-based materials.
It is advantageous to use oxygen carriers based on the chemical loop for oxygen disconnection (CLOU) (based on Cu, Co, Mn), as they have the ability to release molecular oxygen at elevated temperatures (800–1000 °C) (Patzschke et al., 2021). ). Fe2O3 is one of the attractive options among these metal oxides due to its low cost and environmental compatibility (Qasim et al., 2021). It can be seen that CuO as a metal oxide achieved a higher weight loss in the range of 30-40% of the reaction mixture due to the nature of CLOU, leading to the release of oxygen in the gas phase (Cao et al., 2006).
Red mud showed greater mass loss than hematite ores due to the presence of alkali and alkaline earth metals (Chen et al., 2016). Cobalt- and nickel-based oxygen carriers have thermodynamic limitations for complete conversion of H2 and CO (Pröll et al., 2009). As discussed previously, inert components in metal oxides are beneficial in preventing sintering problems during long-term use (Song et al., 2012).
It is advantageous to use perovskites due to the presence of alkali and alkaline earth metals and has high thermal and mechanical stability (Shen et al., 2015).
Effect of process parameters and solid fuel properties on the CLC
Thus, mixed metal oxides have been shown to be better than individual metal oxides, as carbon deposition and agglomeration are limited.
Synergetic effects of co-utilization of coal and biomass
Co-combustion of biomass and coal causes higher reactivity of char due to the presence of alkaline minerals such as Si, K, Ca, Mn, etc. 2013) estimated the weight loss of coal and candlenuts wood under the CO2 atmosphere. They found a higher weight loss rate under co-gasification conditions due to the presence of suitable catalytic species in biomass. 2014) found a positive synergistic effect on the co-combustion of lignite and biomass mixed in the ratio 4:1.
The result was a higher ratio between oxygen and hydrogen and carbon ((O+H)/C) of the biomass. They found that the content of alkali (Na2O, K2O) in the biomass caused defluidization and agglomeration of particles due to the low melting point of alkali. However, under co-combustion conditions, a higher combustion efficiency is estimated due to the release of a larger amount of volatiles (Jayaraman et al., 2017).
2016) reported that charring reactivity increases with the addition of sawdust to coal due to the presence of K2O in their mineral matter.
Comparison of performance of CLC based power plants
The chemical cycle reforming (CLR) process can be integrated with fuel cells to produce electricity. The net thermal efficiency of integrated CLC proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and solid oxide based power systems (SOFC) was estimated in the range of 45-55% (Aghaie et al., 2016, Vairakannu & Kumari , 2016 ) which is 8-9% higher than the efficiency of combined cycle power plants (Fan et al., 2017, Mukherjee et al., 2015a). Cormos (2015) obtained 42.5% net efficiency using sawdust and ilmenite in direct CLC method with solid fuel.
However, the net efficiency of the power plant is reduced to 38% for a gasifier-integrated CLC process. Thus, the direct solid fuel based CLC unit would increase the efficiency of the thermal power plant. In general, the integration of the CLC technology in thermal power plant industries is beneficial in achieving higher net thermal efficiency for electricity production with CO2 capture.
In general, the incorporation of the CLC technology in thermal power plant industries is beneficial to achieve higher net thermal efficiency for electricity production with CO2 capture. carriers are therefore proposed that can handle the e-waste and also make the CLC process economical. ii) The blending of coal and biomass is beneficial to achieve higher conversion of solid fuels. The catalytic activity of inorganic substances (ash), a greater proportion of volatile matter and carbon neutral impact of biomass are the specific advantages of the joint utilization of coal and biomass. iii) CLC-based power generation systems obtained a 4 to 5% increase in the net thermal efficiency, compared to conventional power systems with 100% CO2 capture.
Objectives and scope of the thesis
Chemical combustion of biomass/coal with natural iron ore as oxygen carrier in a continuous reactor. Chemical combustion of coal in a 5 kWth interconnected fluidized bed reactor using hematite as an oxygen carrier. Performance of a bauxite residue as an oxygen carrier for chemical ring combustion using coal as fuel.
Natural Minerals as Oxygen Carriers for Combustion in a Chemical Loop in a Dual-Circulation Fluidized Bed System. Performance of calcium manganate as an oxygen carrier in the combustion of biochar in a chemical loop in a 10 kWth pilot. Chemical circular combustion of biomass in a 10 kWth reactor with iron oxide as an oxygen carrier.
Chemical circular combustion of black coal in a 1 MWth pilot plant using ilmenite as an oxygen carrier.
Materials & Method
C HAPTER 3
A biomass, rice straw (RS), is collected from the local market in Guwahati, India and crushed into particles with sizes in the range of 1–3 mm.
Furthermore, coal ash fusion temperature is reported to increase in the presence of Fe2O3 (Ni et al., 2010). The amount of tar formed during gasification is also low in the presence of Fe2O3, which is thus a potential catalyst for tarred reactions (Ge et al., 2016). In addition, the sintering and agglomeration tendency of Fe2O3 is negligible (Berguerand & Lyngfelt, 2010). Therefore, it is advantageous to use Fe2O3 for direct carbon CLC process.
The PCB of a discarded computer is selected to prepare the e-waste based oxygen carriers for the CLC process. The resins are used as flame retardants, waterproof materials and additives in the e-waste to extend its life (Li et al., 2010). The PCB taken from a discarded computer is disassembled to separate its base plate from the assembled pieces on the main board.
The combustion process continues until no CO2 is detected in the exhaust gas.
When the reduction process is completed, part of the residue is collected for characterization, while the remainder is again fed to the air reactor for oxidation. The chemical composition of the flue gas is analyzed by gas chromatography (Model: . CP-3800; Make M/s Varian, Netherlands). The fastbed reactor experiments are carried out with solid fuel with and without metal oxides.
Experiments performed without metal oxides are called non-CLC experiments, while CLC experiments are performed with metal oxides. A complete list of experiments is shown in Table 3.2, which highlights the ratio of fuel to oxygen carrier, inlet gas flow, etc.
- Characterization techniques
- Synergistic effect of coal and biomass
- Kinetic studies using TGA Data
- Data evaluation
- CLC based power plant simulation using Aspen plus
XRD is used to identify the crystalline components present in the powdered sample (Model: Smartlab, Brand: Rigaku Technologies, Japan). It is analyzed in Department of Chemical Engineering, IIT Guwahati (Model: 450-GC, 240-MS, Make: M/s Varian, Netherlands). To estimate the char conversion, it is important to estimate the unconverted fixed carbon remaining in the CLC process (Adánez et al., 2018).
Therefore, the solid residue obtained from FR is combusted in the reactor using air (AR) at 900°C. The resulting gas CO2 is a measure of the amount of fixed carbon in the waste. CLC reactors are operated at 30 bar with 900°C/1000°C in the fuel/air reactor, respectively.
The costs of fuels and metal oxides considered in this economic analysis study are shown in Table 3.6.
C HAPTER 4
E XPERIMENTAL S TUDIES ON C HEMICAL L OOPING
C OMBUSTION OF C OALS WITH R ICE S TRAW USING
- Results and discussion
- FTIR analysis of raw LAC, char and tar
- GC-MS analysis of LAC based tar
- FESEM and BET analysis
- XRD analysis
- TGA analysis
- Results and discussion
- FTIR of raw coal, char and tar
- GC-MS analysis of HAC based tar
- FESEM and BET analysis
- XRD analysis
- TGA analysis
Mixing LAC and RS produced synthesis gas with a calorific value in the range of 6-8 MJ/Nm3. Calorific value of the gas product obtained during CO2 gasification of LAC, RS and their mixture. RS-Fe2O3 showed additional mass loss at 800-900℃ even in N2 atmosphere due to the interaction of ash with coal particles.
Therefore, the addition of RS with LAC resulted in the reduction in the activation energy for gasification followed by the CLC reaction. Calorific value of synthesis gas obtained during CO2 gasification of HAC, RS and their mixture. Due to the lower reactivity of HAC, the rest of the char in the residue produces a higher percentage of CO2 by 3-5% compared to LAC and RS.
This may be due to the reactivity of calcium ferrite formed in RS with the char content of HAC (as discussed in Chapter 4A). The activation energy for the HAC-Fe2O3 reaction is 18.8 kJ/mol higher than in the case of LAC-Fe2O3. An in-depth analysis of CO2-based co-utilization of HAC and RS in the CLC process is performed.
C HAPTER 5
Utilization of Discarded E-waste as Oxygen Carrier in Co-CLC