They were more likely to leave the plantation for other, better-paid employment, particularly in mines in other parts of the country. While at first this official recruitment of foreign workers was primarily for farm work, in the context of the war guest worker arrangements extended far beyond the agricultural sector. The Federal Republic of Germany was not the only country in Europe that employed foreign workers in the 1940s.
Third, in the increasingly neo-liberal environment of the late 20th century, sending states often actively participate in marketing their citizens as desirable goods abroad. According to another recent report, in 2015 remittances accounted for 3.6 percent of GDP in India, 10 percent in the Philippines and 7 percent in Pakistan. 68 "Integrative" policies that allowed family reunification were abandoned by European states in the second half of the 1970s, especially for guest workers from countries outside Europe.
On the Creation and Accommodation of the Misery of the World
The Case of the Sans-Papiers
Simon Behrman *
The issue of France's continued impoverishment of former colonies is not abstract. As a testament to the ongoing marginalization of the undocumented workforce, mid-2008 saw the beginning of a new phase in the Sans-Papier movement. Even during the last forty years, when official labor migration has been strictly.
13Anne McNevin, "Political Affiliation in a Neoliberal Era: The Struggle of the Sans-Papiers", Citizenship Studies.
The Marginal Refugee in the ‘Migrant Crisis’: Crisis, Othering and Border Walls
Based on these news events and the accompanying analysis, we try to have a discussion about the dominant portraits in the crisis discourse. Most displaced persons, estimated at more than 6 million people, are internally displaced in Syria29. As Goodman et al. note, this frame marked a change in categorization from the 'migrant crisis' to the 'refugee crisis' in the British press, a change from inference from exclusion to that of acknowledgment of the need for support37.
A tragic incident, this confirmed the framework of the invasion for the refugee in the crisis discourse. The discourse on the crisis mediated through these texts has political relevance across transnational contexts. The location of the 'crisis' here is in the heating up of these fears and in their qualification in the form of a perceived threat of collapse, explained in terms of a sudden influx of thousands of refugees.
This fear of a threat to the “birthright rights of the nation or people”67 is reflected in the normalization of the numbers rhetoric associated with the refugee flow in the media and political discourse. See also T. Gammeltoft-Hansen, “The Refugee, The Sovereign and The Sea: EU Interdiction Policies in the Mediterranean” DIIS Working Paper no. Gammeltoft-Hansen, “The Refugee, the Sovereign and the Sea: EU Interdiction Policies in the Mediterranean” DIIS Working.
De Genova, “Number (or, The Spectacle of Statistics in the Production of “Crisis”)”, in Europe/Crisis: New Keywords of “the Crisis” in and of. Stierl, C.Heller, & N.De Genova, “Gallery (or, The Spectacle of Statistics in the Production of “Crisis”)”, in Europe/Crisis: New Keywords of “the Crisis” in and of.
The Migrant as a Political Object
Guests” in Turkey, EU Debates and the Middle Eastern Conundrum
Anita Sengupta *
In an analysis following the surprise victory of the AKP in the polls, Today's Zaman columnist Gokhan Bacik commented on this crucial delay and identified the EU as responsible for the growing authoritarianism in Turkey. Although this appears to be in conflict with the EU's stated position on democracy and human rights, it is a fact that the release of the critical EU. The demand for the Syrian migrant therefore necessarily brings into focus Turkish motivations as well as European reaction.
The issue of Syrian migrants is also closely related to developments in Turkey's internal politics and its neighborhood, as well as recent global reallocations. While this serves Turkish domestic politics, it also means that Turkey is now at loggerheads with Russia and the United States, which recognize the usefulness of Syrian Kurdish fighters in the war against the Islamic State. Failure to intervene would mean the creation of an autonomous Kurdish enclave in northern Syria and the defeat of the Turkish-backed opposition.
While the Turkish predicament defines one side of the migrant story, the other is defined by the European response. In order to do this, it is necessary to come to an understanding of what asylum seeking in Turkey entails in light of the geographical limitation clause of the 1951 convention and the ongoing conflicts in its Asian environment. In more recent times a 'civilisation' concept seems to have developed with the development of the idea of a boundless space.
If this is more than just acting on the part of the president, it will be a deal breaker for Turkey's EU accession process. 13 Since the end of the Cold War, Turkey's relationship with Syria has undergone two major changes.
The Shifting Logics of Reorganisation
Defining Identities and their Borders in Colonial Sylhet
Debarati Bagchi *
The depiction of Sylhet as the 'displaceable' and 'in-between' space in the archive offers a vantage point for the re-establishment of the region in terms of the nearest and the adjacent. Most of the telegrams prayed for Sylhet's incorporation into the province of Bengal.27 However, some pleaded otherwise. And 'an emerging Muslim opposition' remained the key point for dismissing the Sylhet question.
It was an opportunity to "get rid of Sylhet", whose presence was believed to hinder the progress of the Assamese in every possible way. In September 1928, Khan Bahadur Hazi Muhammad Bakht Mazumdar, one of the few great zamindars of Sylhet, revived the debate in the Council. From the mid-1930s, another debate over Sylhet began to dominate discussions in the Assam Legislative Council.
At this time there was a complete reversal of the Hindu and Muslim attitudes on the question of reorganization. The plains at the foot of the Khasi and Jaintia hills were annexed from the jurisdiction of the Jaintia Raja and attached to the Sylhet district. Anxiety over a tribal presence dictated and shaped the idiom of coherence during the debate on Sylhet's cultural boundaries.
Jaintia, while an integral part of the district's administrative jurisdiction, eventually became "marginal" to the production of a "true" Sylhet. 19 "The Humble Memorial of the People of Chittagong," dated January 17, 1904, in Home Department, Public Branch, Apr. 1904, nos.
Changes in Border Policy and Border Identities: Post LBA Transitions in the
Anuradha Sen Mookerjee *
Since none of the residents of the erstwhile Bangladeshi Chhit Mahal in Cooch Behar opted for Bangladeshi citizenship, India added 14,863 new citizens. I wondered if the discourse of the absence of the state in the former Chhit Mahals and the residents' exclusion from enjoying regular citizenship rights made less visible narratives of their display of initiative and agency. In 1971, after the creation of Bangladesh, they became residents of Chhit Mahals in Bangladesh.
The Mekhliganj sub-division laments, “We were looked down upon as outcasts because we are people of the Chhit Mahals. Muslim' in the understanding of the Border Security Force (BSF) and other state agencies of India. At almost every administrative event in the erstwhile Chhit Mahals, representatives of the ruling party were present, sometimes even the North Bengal Development Minister along with representatives of the district administration.
In mid-September 2015, officials from the National Population Register of India visited the Chhit-Mahals and work on citizenship-related identity documents began. In the absence of land settlement, the Public Works Department, along with the District Administration, resorted to road construction in the former Chhit Mahals, in an attempt to create visual change by developing the former Chhit Mahals. Criticism of the District Directorate was difficult and the voice of young citizens was silenced.
He thus sought to oppose politically the bureaucratic decisions which he considered adversely affecting the welfare of the new citizens and the development of the former Chhit Mahals. Shewly, "Abandoned spaces and bare life in the enclaves on the India-Bangladesh border". Political Geography.
Pamela Philipose *
The State of Being Stateless: An Account of South Asia
As Samaddar states in his foreword, “the citizen is the defense of the constitution's visibility; the alien is the shadow, its prey…” He argues for the need to understand the “lifeworld of the stateless” and to achieve this refugee studies will have to “adopt the strategy of interrogating alterity”. The editors of this book, Paula Banerjee, Anasua Basu Ray Chaudhury and Atig Ghosh, are aware of the complexity of the task. As for the Lhotsampas – the Nepalese settlers of Bhutan who were eventually expelled and forced to live in camps in Nepal's Jhapa district for decades – a portion of Nepal remains in a situation of de facto statelessness.
The third question is whether, due to the limitations of legal proceedings, civil society must intervene in order to effectively resolve the statelessness conundrum. As Chaudhury explains in the chapter "The Test of Citizenship," persecution of minorities and majoritarian bias by the state can lead to expulsion, followed by a prolonged refusal by the state concerned to readmit those thus expelled. Ghosh captures in his chapter "The Stateless People of Indo-Bangladesh Enclaves" how the feelings of permanence and transience; security and uncertainty are intertwined in ordinary conversations.
Sen describes how 1,500 of this community were labeled "undesirable aliens" and sent to a camp in Rajasthan, and attacks on their persons and property were not entirely uncommon ("The Chinese of Calcutta: A Case of Statelessness") . Initially there was little resistance to their presence, and the fact that they farmed the land and grew crops, thereby increasing the food security of the region, worked in their favor. In their chapter, "Stateless Chakmats in Arunachal Pradesh," Samir Kumar Das and Chaudhury untangle for the reader the complex knot of.
A similar ebb and flow marked the lives of the Gorkhas of Northeast India and the Lhotsampas of Nepal. Statelessness of the Gorkhas in Northeast India', Anup Shekhar Chakraborty and Subhas Ranjan Chakraborty make an important distinction between the experiences of the Gorkhas in Darjeeling, where they were able to create an institutional structure to address their interests – the Gorkhaland Territorial Administration – and those in other parts of the Northeast where they continued to face rampant insecurity.
NOTES FOR CONTRIBUTORS
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