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With the collapse of the Soviet Union and the emergence of new countries, many other issues became important in explaining forced migration and refugees. Central and Western Asia as part of the workshop and some others that were subsequently commissioned on the subject.

Post-Colonial State and Violence

Rethinking the Middle East and North Africa outside the Blindfold of Area Studies

Nergis Canefe *

Over the following decades, his treatment of the remaining minorities fluctuated from neglect to repression. 2 Roger Owen, State, Power and Politics in the Making of the Modern Middle East, London and New York: Routledge, 2006 (Third Edition). 22 This is a debate from the 1970s that still has resonance for our understanding of the post-colonial state today.

Figure I: Map of Independent nation-states in the Middle East and North Africa  (source http://www.library.illinois.edu/ias/middleeasterncollection/countries.html)
Figure I: Map of Independent nation-states in the Middle East and North Africa (source http://www.library.illinois.edu/ias/middleeasterncollection/countries.html)

A Syrian Exodus the Case of Lebanon and Jordan

Considering the severity and scale of Syrian displacement, The Forced Migration Review (September 2014, Issue 47) focused exclusively on this topic. In the foreword to the issue, Nigel Fisher summarized the nature and consequences of Syrian forced migration. UNHCR's country profile on Lebanon summarizes the situation in the country following the Syrian crisis:.

The impact of the Syrian crisis - including on the economy, demography, political instability and security - continues to deepen across Lebanon. Similarly, a UNHCR country profile of Jordan summarizes the situation in the country as a result of the Syrian crisis:. To protect its national identity in these circumstances and because of the complicated state of affairs in the region in general, the country did not become a party to the 1951 Refugee Convention.

Great game.” The immediate consequence and the real tragedy in human terms of this anarchic situation is the colossal forced displacement of the Syrian population. 20 Roger Zetter and Heloise Ruaudel, “Development and Protection Challenges of the Syrian Refugee Crisis,” Forced Migration Review, The Syria Crisis, Displacement and Protection, 47, September 2014, pp.

The Uyghur and Dungan Migrants of Central Asia By

Suchandana Chatterjee *

During the formation of the pro-Soviet East Turkestan Republic (ETR) in the prefectures of Ili, Tarbaghatay and Altay, relations between the Uyghurs and the Semirech'e region were widely popularized through his writings. These migrants moved across the border into the territory of Tsarist Russia in the latter part of the nineteenth century after the defeat of the Northwest Uprising by the Qing army. From this point on, the Uighurs have been constituted as one of the three main ethnic groups in the Russian part of the Ili Valley, along with the Russians and the Kazakhs.

A smaller group of immigrants from the southern part of Xinjiang, called Kashgarliks, continued in the direction of the Fergana Valley. This back-and-forth movement of the Uyghurs, which dates back to the settlement policy of Tsarist Russia, establishes the rootedness of the Uyghurs in Semirech. In the end result, Altishahr, the steppe homeland of the Dzhungars, became a Chinese administrative unit called Xinjiang (New Dominion).

The memory of the region was thus that of a dependency under (a) Qianlong imperial rule and (b) the People's Republic of China (PRC). Instead of rediscovering our historical homeland, we felt like strangers and unwanted in the eyes of the local population.

Returnees in Afghanistan

Impediments to Reintegration

Arpita Basu Roy *

As background for the analysis, an overview of the most important waves of conflict-induced displacement is highlighted. Ideally, family members or friends in the various neighborhoods of the migrants' arrival provide the initial care for new arrivals. In this case, the Soviet intervention in the country and its aftermath led to one of the world's largest refugee crises.

This is a reflection of the constantly changing political and security situation in Afghanistan, as well as access to assistance in Pakistan and Iran. The battle for control of Kabul, which resulted in the destruction of large parts of the city, led to the exodus of more than 100,000 Kabulis. A number of issues – both in the neighboring countries of asylum and in Afghanistan – continued to represent cause for concern in the effort to maintain the voluntary nature of the repatriation.

Thus, despite the fall of the Taliban regime in late 2001, security and stability remained a long way off. About one million people were internally displaced, partly from the effects of the drought and partly due to ethnic unrest in the north.

Marginality and Migration: The Plight of Persecuted Religious Minorities of

Afghanistan

Anwesha Ghosh *

Many Hindus and Sikhs found incentives to seek asylum in India, born of the ethnic and religious similarities with part of the Indian population. 2Hafizullah Emadi, 'Minorities and Marginality: The Pertinacity of Hindus and Sikhs in an Oppressive Environment in Afghanistan'. 7Hafizullah Emadi, 'Minorities and Marginality: Pertinacity of Hindus and Sikhs in a repressive environment in Afghanistan', p.309.

10Hafizullah Emadi, 'Minorities and Marginality: The Pertinence of Hindus and Sikhs in a Repressive Environment in Afghanistan', pg.314. 12Hafizullah Emadi, 'Minorities and Marginality: The Pertinence of Hindus and Sikhs in a Repressive Environment in Afghanistan'. 14Hafizullah Emadi, 'Minorities and Marginality: The Pertinence of Hindus and Sikhs in a Repressive Environment in Afghanistan', p.311.

22Hafizullah Emadi, 'Minorities and Marginality: Pertinacity of Hindus and Sikhs in a repressive environment in Afghanistan', pp.316. Almost 88 percent of the Afghan refugee population in the country was Hindu or Sikh.

Report-I

International Workshop on Gender, Development, Resistance, 7 to 8 June 2015,

University of Lapland in Rovaniemi, Finland: A Report

Eija Ranta (University of Helsinki) then went on to discuss the aspirations and experiences of women in Kenya venturing into political forums and national decision making through her paper 'There is Patriarchy Fighting Back Feminism': Negotiating Gendered Political Spaces and Power in Kenya. , focusing both on women who still struggle to enter the political arena and those who have managed to enter parliament. The focus of her discussion was to see how this phenomenon of displacement generates resistance among the displaced women, rather than simply making them victims of the process. Her paper also highlighted the government's and civil society's commitment to increasing gender equality and empowerment, as well as women's achievements in education, health care, poverty reduction, and political participation.

Tiina Seppala of the University of Lapland and started with Roopshree Joshi (Nepal) sharing findings from her research on women's access to citizenship comparing how Nepali women married to Tibetan men and single Nepali mothers were unable to transfer rights to citizenship to their children in her speech. on the Right of Citizenship. They argued that the purpose of this research was to bring these women's experiences to the forefront of the current debate on tourism development in the city of Metepec in Mexico. This was followed by a presentation on "Beyond the Eurocentric imaginary body" by Carolina Serrano Barquin, Rocio Serrano Barquin and Adelaida Rojas Garcia (Mexico) analyzing the interpretation and assimilation of the binary body image by student athletes from the Autonomous University of the State of Mexico.

Arguing how rationalities and technologies of the modern nation-state find reproduction in contemporary times by individualizing social ills and pathologizing the poor, Sara Motta (University of New Castle, Australia) then explained in her discussion of Australia's Body Politic: The Negation and Denial of the raced/gendered 'Other' legitimizing continued and increasing interventions to remove children from refugee, poor white and indigenous families. She argued that taking activists' perspectives into account could not only broaden and enrich theoretical debates about the feminization of resistance in several ways, but could also contribute to concrete efforts to decolonize political science and feminism in the West through a transformation of the relationship between political practice and theory , being and knowledge.

Report-II

Research Workshop on Rohingyas in India

Birth of a Stateless Community, August 13- 14, 2015, Darjeeling: A Report

Sucharita Sengupta and Madhura Chakraborty *

Basavapatna provided a legal analysis of statelessness along with a description of the experiences and rights of the Rohingyas. She argued that the mixed flow has led to further insecurity of the Rohingyas in the high seas problematizing their migration as 'asylum seekers'. He urged Sengupta to go deep into the analysis of the Rohingya maritime crisis, including the idea of.

He also noted the fact that the insecurity of Rohingyas as 'boat people' is also an extension of the policy of 'inclusive exclusion' that the Rohingyas have received from the concerned states. The fifth session focused on the plight of the Rohingya children with special reference to Bengal. Nitya Ramakrishnan spoke of the need for a proper theoretical and legal framework on the history of the Rohingyas.

He also briefly addressed the history of Rohingya statelessness, referring to the Burmese Nationality Act of 1982. The lack of documentation on the origin of the Rohingya has also contributed to the policy of exclusion.

Book Review

Madeleine Reeves (ed.) Movement, Power and Place in Central Asia and Beyond , Routledge Third Worlds Two Book Series,

This expedition was a preliminary step in organizing the settlement of Russian peasants in the Kazakh steppes. While the measurement of the physical realities of the steppes "ultimately ran counter to arguments about the multi-value of a sedentary lifestyle in terms of economic productivity and civil order", this was brought to an end by the realities of mass settlement and the political imperatives of the 1920s. Judith Beyer delves into the oral history and ethnography of rural Talas to highlight the socio-spatial transformations that took place in the twentieth century in northern Kyrgyzstan, focusing on the way these transformations were incorporated into the enactment of locality and kinship as part of its informants.

Although the reforms aimed at collectivization and sedentarization can be seen as an aspect of colonial technology, the villagers "changed the imperial landscape, making it possible to perceive it as theirs" and thus incorporated new forms of settlement into their daily existence. Jeanne Feaux de la Croix argues that movement is critical to spatial imaginings in her study of flowing water and its interpretations in the mountains of Toktogul in central Kyrgyzstan. Such migration may enable men to acquire social recognition, habits and skills that their ancestors would have acquired by serving in the Soviet army.

The essays in this volume represent an attempt to connect short- and long-range, classed and gendered, voluntary and involuntary, national and local movement histories with specific places in the Central Asian region and beyond. The complex intersections between place, power and movement are explored in contexts such as gender politics in rural Uzbekistan of residence in a time of mass migration, the introduction of a civilized sedentarization in the Kazakh steppes through various expeditions, ritual articulation of descent and language in a modern-day village of Kirgztan and state led initiatives to resettle population in the early days of Soviet rule in Tajikistan.

NOTES FOR CONTRIBUTORS

REFUGEE WATCH

In this Issue

Figure

Figure I: Map of Independent nation-states in the Middle East and North Africa  (source http://www.library.illinois.edu/ias/middleeasterncollection/countries.html)
Figure II: Map of Ottoman Rule in the MENA Region  (source http://uncensored.co.nz/2010/02/04/
Figure III:  Map of Colonial Rule in the MENA Region  (source http://www.vox.com/a/maps-explain-the-middle-east)

References

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