Concluding remarks and basic findings of Chapter 72 Chapter IV Phenomenological search for the intersubjective dimensions of transcendental subjectivity. The crisis of the meaning of science and the emergence of the lifeworld in Husserl's phenomenology.
Background of the Problem;
Since then, the philosophical tradition has grappled with the nature of the self, and the problem of personality emerges from the philosophy of the self. In this connection, it should be noted here that Plato conveyed his theory that the soul is the ultimate real thing that exists independently of the body, which is a representation of the mind and intellect.
Issues of the Study Undertaken
The intentionality or meaning ('ofness' or 'government') of the action is based on the other aspects of the action, as in Husserl; Significantly, towards the end, Husserl tries to give an ethical hint with the hope of creating a better society and healing the people from a crisis situation led by the Nazi atrocities in Europe.
Review of Literature
He also explores Husserl's concept of empathy, which refers to the experience of others as subjects. In his book, Zahavi (2003a) provides a complete picture of Husserlian phenomenology from its early to its later development.
Statement of the Problem
In what way does Husserl provide an alternative concept of subjectivity that differs from the pre-phenomenological exploration of selfhood, personality and subjectivity. In what way could Husserlian phenomenology address the question of alienation arising out of technologization.
Further, the chapter also discusses analytic philosophical counterparts to explore the issue of subjectivity or the self. The chapter then goes on to explore the Husserlian debt to his teacher Brentano and his influence on Husserl.
Chapter IV: Phenomenological Quest for the Inter-subjective Dimensions of Transcendental Subjectivity
Early Phase of Husserlian Phenomenology of Selfhood
- Psychologism, Naturalism and Beyond
- Rejection of a Metaphysically Constructed Speculative Self in Preference for Intuition and Description of the Epistemic Subject
To get a clear picture of the issue now, it is therefore necessary to discuss Husserl's rejection of both psychologism and naturalism in this respect. Thus, to get a better handle on the development, we need to revisit Husserl's relationship with Frege and Brentano to understand the boundary between logic and psychology from a Husserlian perspective.
Husserl and Frege: Similarities and Differences
Finally, it can be summed up that Husserl's overcoming of psychologism is completely independent of Frege's review. Husserl's distinction between the ideal and the real is similar in many ways to Gottlob Frege's distinction.
Brentano and Husserl
- Husserl’s Critical Estimate of Brentano’s Initial Inclination for Psychologism
These can all be considered as the properties of the building that are physical in nature. As per Husserl, Brentano's theory can be considered as the repetition of the theory such as representation theory forwarded by the empiricists such as Locke, Berkeley and others.
Husserlian Departure from Traditional Logic to Pure Logic
If logic were to be a normative discipline, logic's primary concern would be how one ought to reason. In the Prolegomena, Husserl's main intention was thus to demarcate logic from other sciences and to establish logic as an independent science.
From Kant to Bolzano: Husserlian Quest for Pure Logic
In his Prolegomena, Husserl gives the greatest priority to Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz regarding the concept of logic. However, it was Bernard Bolzano who first proposed the concept of mathesis universalis in his Theory of Science (Wissenschaftslehre).
Husserl and Bolzano in Developing the Concept of Pure Logic
But at the same time, it was Herman Lotze who helped Husserl understand Bolzano's position. Husserl began to study Bolzano's concept of proposition and representation, while Lotze gave his interpretation of Plato's theory of ideas.
Husserlian Quest for Epistemic Subject
For this is the only way to gain knowledge of the relation between the ideal object and the conscious act of cognition. His effort is only to have the recognition of the object in relation to the a priori act of consciousness (Zahavi, 2003).
A Brief Summary of the Chapter
The object as meant and intended and is always an object in relation to someone, and one essentially leads to the other. Transcendental Turn to the Ego and Subjectivity: Phenomenological Reduction to the Intentionality of Consciousness and Its Noematic Co-Relations:.
Thus, Husserlian turns to the subjectivity that differs from other egocentric explanations of subjectivity, needs further explanations of the phenomenological reductions and the methods of parentheses so that one can be able to explore the noema-noesis-co-relationship of Transcendental Subjectivity and understanding it's positioning in the Lifeworld. Initially, Husserl was unaware of the extent of the field of Phenomenology until the time of the Logical Investigations and understood Phenomenology only in relation to the problems of Logic and Epistemology.
Phenomenology: A Brief Description
The main focus of Husserli's phenomenology is not on causal explanations, but on clarifications, the clarification of the study of the givenness of phenomena in first-person experience (Spiegelberg, 1965). For example, a neurologist could provide all possible mechanistic accounts of another person's pain from a third-person perspective, which is different from experiencing the same pain himself.
Husserlian Methods for Phenomenology
- The Transcendental or Phenomenological Reduction
- The Natural and the Phenomenological Attitude
- Bracketing or Epoché
According to Husserl, this assumption can be considered as the "general thesis" of the natural relation. Finally, after performing the Phenomenological Reduction, with the help of the eidetic reduction, it is possible to understand the intentional relationship between consciousness and the world (ibid).
The Noema-Noesis Correlation
Follesdal interprets the concept of noema as a mediating factor between action and object that always exists in all conscious actions. Noema, according to Husserl, is not an object towards which the action is directed, but rather a path through which the object can be grasped; it connects the emergent thought with the intended object (Moran, 2000).
Husserl on Transcendental Subjectivity
This is the point that can be considered as transcendental subjectivity or a universal horizon of consciousness, where the ego along with its goals is bracketed. Thus, transcendental subjectivity, which is the realm of universal consciousness, involves a special kind of intuition to understand the true nature of essences.
- Kant and Husserl on Transcendentalism
- Husserl and Neo-Kantianism with Special Emphasis on Paul Natorp
These three steps can also be thought of as the steps of the process of category intuition. Now, in the third step of the process of categorical intuition a relation can be established between the object of the whole and one of its dependent parts.
Husserl against Idealism
Husserl and the Internalism-Externalism Debate
As per Follesdal (1969) and Dreyfus (1982), noematic Sinn is contained within the noema and through noema only the mind can grasp the external objects. According to them, the abstract nature of noematic Sinn or the noema is an ideal medium and which is always internal and has no direct connection with the external world.
Concluding Remarks and Basic Findings of the Chapter
It has been discussed so far how Husserlian phenomenology entered the domain of transcendental philosophy with the application of his phenomenological methods. Husserlian formulations in his Cartesian meditations showed his motives, where he considered the transcendental-phenomenological ego as the realm of transcendental-phenomenological self-experience (Husserl, 1982).
Transcendental Subjectivity and its Embodiment as Conceived by Edmund Husserl
- Body as Leib and Körper in Husserlian Phenomenology
This is the point where Husserl brings his analysis of the lived body (Leib) which means body as subject and physical body (Körper) or body as object (Zahavi, 1999). Having this dual body sensation is the most unique aspect of transcendental subjectivity.
The Constitution of the Other in Husserlian Phenomenology
Lipps emphasizes both the external behavior of the other and the self-experience of your own self. It is not impossible to understand the feelings, beliefs, values and experiences of other people.
Transcendental Intersubjectivity and the Constitution of the World in Husserlian Phenomenology
- The Crisis of the Meaning of Science and Emergence of the Life-World in Husserl’s Phenomenology
- Husserlian interpretation of the New Trend in Sciences for Experiment and Certainty: Galileo Galilei and the Idealization of Nature
Sebastian Luft considered Husserl's concept of the world as the most primary theme of his late phenomenology (Luft, 2011). It is now necessary, therefore, to examine the Husserlian concept of the lifeworld in detail.
Husserl’s Discovery of the Life-World: From Private to Public
Husserl therefore tries to address these problems again by focusing his attention on the truths of the life world (Pivčević, 2014). According to him, we failed to understand the relationship between science and our everyday experience in the life world, which brings about the crisis of the sciences (Flynn, 2011).
Concluding Remarks and Basic Findings of the Chapter
But, by constitution Husserl does not mean the constitution of objects, which is a direct form of constitution, but only of the "ego" which is reflective in nature (Liangkang, 2010). Husserl in his Fourth Meditation emphasizes the universal genesis of the "ego" and writes: "The ego constitutes itself in, so to speak, the unity of a 'history'" (ibid., p. 75).
Historicity in Husserl’s Analysis
According to him, ―history from the outset is nothing but the vital movement of the coexistence and the interweaving of original formations and sedimentations of meaning. In this connection, it is necessary to mention here that Husserl, while talking about ―history‖, was aware of the importance of intersubjectivity.
Temporal Horizon in Husserl’s Late Phenomenology
- Husserl and Bergson on Temporality
For both Husserl and Bergson, the experience of an object involves the actualization of indeterminate elements of multiplicity. Thus Merleau Ponty said that Bergson's account of time cannot establish the independence of the past.
Husserl on Tradition and Culture
Thus, the crisis occurred and the world witnessed the devastating experience of the First World War. So this is the time to discuss that lost sense of life's meaning in the lifeworld following Husserl.
Loss of the Meaning of Life in the Life-World
- Genetically Modified Food and its Impact on the Life-World
- Virtual World and its Impact on the Life-World
Second, the study will show the issue of the virtual world and its impact on our life world. This can be considered as one of the important examples of diverting oneself from the world of life to which we all belong.
The Ethical Renewal or Phenomenology as Ethical Life in Husserl’s Phenomenology
Thus, Husserl talks about the elevation of humanity, which he wrote in the Japanese journal The Kaizo written between 1922 and 1924 and advocated the ethical renewal of humanity. Despite profound disciplinary differences, both Husserl and Freud worked for the same cause or for the betterment of the life of man in this world.
Phenomenology and Psycho-Analysis: Husserl and Freud
On the other hand, Derrida gives a very different interpretation of the essence of metaphysics (Boos, 2008). Husserl's Crisis of European Science and Transcendental Phenomenology: Introduction, Cambridge: The Cambridge University Press.