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Academic year: 2023

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This is one of the reasons for the slow and insufficient progress in research on farming systems in the country. Decisions are influenced by household priorities, the farmer's knowledge and experience, and the resources at his disposal. Some of the cropping systems based on commercial crops are (i) cotton based, (ii) groundnut based, (iii) sugarcane based, (iv) plantation crop based and (v) vegetable based cropping system.

This will not provide any explanation for the pattern of land use in the cropping system. Some common indices have been developed to measure and compare farm land use and production potential in multiple cropping.

Dairy Farming

If the system extends over a year, the denominator can be replaced by 365 days and the return per day for the whole year can be calculated. inseminate for 3 days continuously to have the best probability of getting pregnant. The gestation period varies with individual cows and breeds and is normally around 280 days. Raw foods: Dairy cattle are efficient users of raw materials and convert large quantities of relatively cheap raw materials into milk.

Goat and Sheep Rearing

It is advisable to feed a supplement containing vitamins A and D. Mineral mixtures containing salt, Ca, Mg and P should also be provided in the ration. Once every five years, the head can be changed to avoid deterioration due to inbreeding. When the young reach a body weight of about 25-30 kg in about nine months, they can be sold.

Since the gain depends on weight gain, adequate protein and calories must be given to goats. Goats should be fed concentrates of maize, wheat, horse gram, groundnut cake, fishmeal and wheat bran. Fresh water is needed for digestion, blood circulation and the removal of waste from the body.

Water is also necessary for regulating body temperature. ii) Sheep raising: Sheep are well adapted to many areas. However, to protect the herd from predatory animals, the height of the fence must be increased to two meters. There are three types of sheep in India based on the geographical division of the country. i) Temperate Himalayan region: Gurez, Karanah, Bhakarwal, Gaddi, Rampur-Bushiar.

Feeding a mixture of common salt, ground limestone and sterilized bone meal in equal parts is necessary to alleviate deficiency of minerals in the feed.



Duck Rearing


Apis cerana: serves for commercial beekeeping in most of the country and is mostly grown in ISI-A type apiaries. The average production of honey from this species is between 30 and 40 kg/hive/year with a grazing area of ​​up to 2-3 km. Management: The beekeeper must know the source of nectar and pollen in his area.

Under the subtropical climates of India, sources of nectar and pollen are available for most of the year, but a consistent year-round succession is lacking in some localities. The flowers of a large number of plant species are visited by bees for nectar and pollen. The most important sources of nectar and pollen are corn, mustard, sunflower and palm, lychee, pongamia, coconut, sesame etc.

A minimum of 2 colonies is recommended because in the event of an accident such as the loss of the queen in one, the other can be taken advantage of. The most suitable time to start beekeeping in the area is the onset of the swarming season. Collecting honey: Honey is a sweet viscous liquid produced by bees mainly from the nectar of flowers.

Honey varies in the proportion of its constituents due to differences in the nectar produced by different plants.


The hive consists of bottom board, brood chamber, brood chamber frames, super chamber, super chamber frames, top cover, inner cover and entrance bar. During ripening, sucrose is converted into glucose and fructose by an enzyme called invertase, which is added by the bees. If the pH is less than 6.5, it can be adjusted by adding lime at regular intervals of 2-3 days.

If the nutrient content is less, nitrogenous fertilizers such as ammonium sulphate and urea and phosphatic fertilizers such as superphosphate can be added. Organic manures such as FYM and poultry manure can also be applied to promote the growth of phyto- and zooplankton. i) Among the Indian large carps, Catla (Catla catla) is the fast growing fish. It is primarily a surface and column feeder. ii) Rohu (Labeo rohita) is a column feeder and feeds on growing fish.

It is mainly a column and surface feeder. iii) Calbasu (Labeo calbasu) is a bottom feeder of waste. Mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) is also a bottom feeder and largely absorbs detritus, diatoms, filamentous algae and other algae and higher plants. Carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a bottom feeder and omnivore. iv) Silver carp (Hypophthalmichlthys molitrix) lives mainly on surface and phytoplankton and also feeds on microplants. v) Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is a specialized feeder of aquatic plants, grass clippings and other plant material.

This stocking density will make it possible to achieve a maximum annual yield of 2,000 to 5,000 kg of fish per hectare with good management.


Phytophagous fish (Catla, Rohu and Mrigal) can be combined with omnivores (common carp), plankton feeders (silver carp) and mud eaters (Mrigal and Calbasu) in a composite fish culture system. For higher productivity, fish should be provided with additional feed of rice bran and oilseed cake. Climatic conditions in India are favorable for the luxuriant growth of mulberries and the growth of silkworms throughout the year.

The temperature in the state of Karnataka, the largest silk producing state in India, ranges from 21.2 to 30oC. The climatic conditions of Kashmir are favorable for silkworms from May to October. Rearing and maintenance: The fertilized moth is covered with an inverted funnel or cell and eggs must be laid over a cardboard. If the moths are allowed to come out of the cocoons, the silk thread is cut into pieces.

The cocoons required for further rearing are kept separate and moths are allowed to emerge from them.

Mushroom Cultivation

The crop can produce well for 12 years, after which it is pulled out and planted fresh. Paddy straw Mushroom: Cut the straw into long pieces of 60-90 cm and soak in water for 12 hours and sterilize for 15 minutes. Lay the moistened straw bundles on the slightly raised concrete floor or on a wooden platform in layers four bundles wide.

Spawn or seed the beds simultaneously in each layer either by broadcasting or placing the grain spawn in different locations. The trays are arranged in the pruning room in tiers and covered with newspaper sheets sprayed with 2% formalin.


Agri-forestry systems: This system emphasizes the raising of trees and the cultivation of field crops and/or fodder crops in the available space between the trees. It is mostly practiced on arable land, where multi-purpose trees used for fuel and fodder can be grown with crops in the fields as alley farming. Agri-horticulture: In this system, fruit trees are grown along with crops and multi-purpose trees (MPTs).

Silvi-Pastoral system: In the silvi-pastoral system, improved pasture species are introduced with tree species. In the marginal, sub-marginal and other degraded areas, the forestry system proves to be the most economical agroforestry system, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. Trees provide fuel and wood in the extremely dry season and lean periods, animals graze on meadows and feed on the leaves of nutritious trees and shrubs.

In the degraded arid and semi-arid areas, a number of overgrazed plants of Ziziphus nummularis are found which can be successfully outflowered with an improved variety of ber (namely Gola, Seb, Umran, Banaras, Kaska) besides planting MPTs like anjan, Subabul , Khejri along grasses and legumes such as Cenchrus, Lasiurus, Chrysopogon, Stylosanthes, Sirato etc. MPTs could be introduced in the pasture strips as well as in the crop strips, which in addition to protecting the crops from drying hot and cold winds would also provide leaves fodder, timber etc. The pastoral forestry system is the practice where grazing is the main component, with scattered trees growing in the area.

The main trees planted in the system are Eucalyptus hybrid, Casuarina equisetifolia, Borassus flabellifa and phoenix sylvestris.


Core Features: Many of the core activities of FSR/E can be operationalized in different ways. Despite the variations in their perceptions about FSR/E among the practitioners, the approach has certain distinctive core characters. The acceptable new technology is promoted in collaboration with the line department of the state government.

Feedback on farmers' response to the technology will determine whether the technology is appropriate and also when changes are needed. Analyze and explain the behavior of a complex system and determine the relative importance of various system components/companies. Rainfed farming systems: Farming in rainfed areas and fragile ecosystems is indispensable for meeting the food, fiber and energy needs of local populations.

Essentially, the system consists of growing annual crops together with forest species in the early years of forest plantation establishment. Therefore, no single agricultural enterprise can meet the growing needs of small and marginal farmers for food and other needs. Improved agricultural technologies, even if considered technically sound for an individual component of the agricultural system, are of limited value if not adopted by the agricultural community.

This type of research is best carried out by the interdisciplinary team of scientists who, in collaboration with the Extension Officers, continuously interact with the farmers in identifying the problems and finding their solutions. Farming systems approach to agricultural research and development efforts will accelerate agricultural growth of the country thereby providing leverage for the transformation of poverty-prone rural India to a prosperous India by strengthening the rural economy. Integrated management of available resources of the small and marginal farmers for generating income and employment in Eastern India.

Figure 3: Agro-ecosystem transect of village Palsipani (district Kalahandi) of Orissa based on      participatory rural appraisal
Figure 3: Agro-ecosystem transect of village Palsipani (district Kalahandi) of Orissa based on participatory rural appraisal


Figure 3: Agro-ecosystem transect of village Palsipani (district Kalahandi) of Orissa based on      participatory rural appraisal
Table 2: A suggested model of enterprise diversification on  1.25  ha  farmland                       at Bhubneshwar and its economics
Table 1: Economics of Rice based farming systems for a marginal farmer (0.4 ha)               under low land ecosystem in Tamil Nadu (mean of five years)


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