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PDF D 2 2 state of the art of governance and conflict resolution literature


Academic year: 2023

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Introduction: CORE Literature review

Conflict resolution/transformation

The concepts of conflict resolution and conflict transformation

Others see conflict transformation simply as the deepest level of the conflict resolution tradition (Ramsbotham, Woodhouse and Miall, 2011). Third, because 'conflict resolution' is the term most familiar in the media and among the general public.

Trends in the literature

Ramsbotham, Woodhouse, and Miall believe that people involved in conflict resolution and conflict transformation are essentially involved in the same endeavor. However, at the same time, although quantitatively less, there is also critical literature regarding the practice of conflict resolution/transformation.


The concept of peacebuilding

The question is how the UN discourse itself produces certain kinds of femininities and masculinities as hegemonic. Sometimes the concept is also used almost synonymously with development, conflict prevention and conflict resolution.

Trends in the literature

This is in line with the political, military, economic and cultural goals of the global north. To its credit, it is aware of the need to include the local and the everyday in conceptualizing peace.

Peacebuilding as statebuilding

A recent trend in the peacebuilding literature has been the continued dominance of scholars and practitioners from the Global North in the peacebuilding literature. It is not true that scholars and practitioners from the Global South have little to say, it is simply that the power relations in the political, media and academic worlds allow voices from the Global North to have greater importance (Mac Ginty, 2011b: 4). -5).


The concept of statebuilding

These could, if current and usually critical research is indicative, respond to the very important conceptual gaps and their policy coherence that prevent it from also acting as an umbrella for local peace practices in the same way that it appears to be (liberal) peacebuilding has become an international umbrella for various interventionist practices, aimed primarily at security, political rights and institutions, and neoliberal versions of the state. In addition, Call and Wyeth (2008) define nation-building as actions taken by international or national actors to establish, reform, or strengthen state institutions and their relationship with society, which may or may not contribute to peacebuilding, i.e.

Trends in the literature

One of the issues around which some of the critical approaches take shape is that of sovereignty and the related internationalization and depoliticization of weak and post-conflict states. Nevertheless, critical studies have shed light on how state legitimacy might be hampered by external state-building interventions, the issues of local actors, and the social structures within the weak and post-conflict states where an intervention has taken place. seem to have been neglected (see Duffield, 2001; Bliesemann de Guevara, 2008).


The concept of governance

For example, the World Bank defines governance as "the process and institutions through which decisions are made and authority is exercised in a country". Brinkerhoff (2007: 2) provides a similar definition, with governance as "the nexus of state-society relations where governments and citizens interact". In general, this leads to an interest in participation, in the ability of a strong civil society to check the power of government and to participate in governance itself, and to work with horizontal networks instead of hierarchies.

UNHCR (2007) emphasizes the role of government, understanding governance as a "process, where public institutions perform public affairs, manage public resources and guarantee the realization of human rights". However, many of the official definitions suggest that although there seems to be a lot of emphasis on the participation of civil society, in essence its governance is conceived to be around a set of rather technocratic principles regarding policy-making and implementation, operationalization. public administration capacity, regulatory power and accountability channels (Brinkerhoff, 2005: 5). Koskenniemi (2011a b), advocating for a return to sovereignty, writes that “the informal management of a growing number of important social problems within global expert regimes and outside formal state structures undermines the ability of human groups to create themselves and To live. as 'political communities'', a claim that has been echoed by many (Kratochwil, 2011a, b; Chandler.

Others in the critical camp do not accept that governance would in any way displace sovereignty, and instead argue for the continued importance of sovereign exclusion (Agamben, 2005) or of widespread and multiple practices of inclusion and exclusion (Walker, 2010). For the World Bank (1994), the main criteria of good governance include transparency, accountability and predictability of government, professionalism of bureaucracy, strength and public participation of civil society and rule of law.

Trends in the literature on governance and conflict

One of the most contentious issues in the literature concerns the role of the state in the path to good governance. Duffield (2009) provides an intriguing parallel between the contemporary discourse of fragile states and the discourse of Native Administration from the late nineteenth century, arguing that they share a willingness to accept despotism (as a form of the realism of 'good enough government' ') and the adaptation of the management technologies to the limits set by the culture of the governed. In the 1960s, in the wake of the Green Revolution, the emphasis shifted to centrally coordinated sectoral arrangements.

Chatterjee joins other postcolonial writers in pointing out that the technology of governmentality in the colonial world precedes the rise of the modern state. Citizens inhabit the domain of theory and carry the ethical connotation of participation in the sovereignty of the state. Another edited volume by Gaventa and Tandon (2010) offers a more sober and detailed view of the role of global governance in the everyday lives of citizens.

At the same time, this does not imply a complete lack of freedom of action on the part of the excluded. First, it explores conflict management in non-traditional ways and aims to bridge the current divide by analyzing the dynamics on the ground and including the role of local actors.

Indian literature


The significance of the historical experience centers on the fact that the country's independence represents both a significant break and a measure of continuity with its colonial history. Mitra (2002) tackles the puzzle of postcolonial India's relative success in the face of its enormous governance problems with an eye on how this distance between state and society affected the outcome. While the standard response of the state is to activate the armed apparatuses of the state in the name of maintaining 'law and order' (Prasad, 1975; Chaitanya, 1991; Devalle, 1992), the state has also initiated some reform measures.

It included efforts to culturally subjugate the colony's population to facilitate administrative activities. Thus, the contemporary power regime seeks legitimacy not through the participation of citizens in state affairs, but by claiming to provide for the well-being of the population. The state emphasizes the well-being and security of the population using government technologies, independently of considerations of citizens' participation in state sovereignty (Chatterjee, 2004: 41).

Similarly, Tandon and Mohanty (2003) argue that good governance should not be seen as the exclusive responsibility of the state. The volume's authors also find that globalized governance does not imply a diminished role for the nation state.

Conflict transformation

Most of the essays in the four volumes challenge the limited understanding of peace as conflict management and underline the need to include the historical and socio-political realities of the colonial and post-colonial world. The essays in the first part of the series (Samaddar, 2004) introduce the concept, scope and themes of peace studies and expose the shortcomings of current Western liberal understanding of peace building and conflict resolution. Moreover, most of the arguments about the role of civil society are more prescriptive than descriptive/evaluative, and do not address decisively how such a civil society could emerge in a conflict-torn region.

In contemporary literature, however, their role is emphasized both in terms of the need to expand the concept of peace by including gender-related forms of (structural) violence, and in relation to the traditional role of women in practices aimed at peace and reconciliation. Most of the recent writings linking gender and peace draw on a holistic vision of peace that defies the narrow framework of the statist concept of security and instead highlights the truth of the everyday insecurities of South Asian women. Overall, the volume traces the generic connections, both conceptual and material, between transformative feminist politics and the problematization of the gendered binary of war and peace.

Apart from the nature of peace to be pursued and the actors who should be at the center of this activity, the methodology of peacebuilding is another area of ​​contention. With the Indian state's recent successes in pacifying some of its fringes, some argue that the democratic agenda becomes the biggest casualty.


Clapham, Cristopher (2003) 'Global Governance and State Collapse', in: Feargal Cochrane, Rosaleen Duffy and Jan Selby (eds) Global Governance, Conflict and Resistance. Sorbo, Joanna Macrae and Lennart Wohlegemuth (eds.) NGOs in conflict - an international alarm assessment. Hewitt, Vernon (2009) 'Empire, international development and the concept of good governance', in: Mark Duffield and Vernon Hewitt (eds.) Empire, Development and Colonialism.

Mackenzie, Heather (2009, red.) Democratizing global governance: tien jaar van gevallestudies en refleksies deur burgerlike samelewingsaktiviste, Nieu-Delhi: Mosaic Books. Miall, Hugh (2003) 'Global governance and conflict prevention', in: Feargal Cochrane, Rosaleen Duffy en Jan Selby (reds.) Global Governance, Conflict and Resistance. Hent Kalmo en Quentin Skinner (reds.) Sovereignty in Fragments: The Past, Present and Future of a Contested Concept.

Weermagrol in stabiliteit en heropbou-operasies', in: Brinkerhoff (red.) Governance in Post- Conflict Societies. Selby, Jan (2003) 'Inleiding', in: Feargal Cochrane, Rosaleen Duffy en Jan Selby (reds.) Global Governance, Conflict and Resistance. Sum, Ngai-Ling (2003) 'Global economic governance in the information age: counter-hegemonic challenges and sub-hegemonic adaptations in East Asia', in: Feargal Cochrane, Rosaleen Duffy en Jan Selby (reds.) Global Governance, Conflict en Weerstand.

Tripathi, Salil (2008) 'Corporate Social Responsibility', in: Michael Pugh, Neil Cooper en Mandy Turner (reds.) Whose Peace.


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