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Marine Fisheries Information Service No.255


Academic year: 2023

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Marine Fisheries Information Service, Technical and Supplementary Series (MFIS) is a quarterly publication of ICAR-Central Institute of Marine Fisheries Research that disseminates the latest research information on marine fisheries and mariculture in India. 7 Mandapam Regional Center of ICAR-Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Mandapam Camp- 623 520, Tamil Nadu Short Communications.

Fig. 2. Gear-wise landings of eels along Odisha coast during 2007- 2007-2021(MDTN: mechanized multiday trawl nets, MGN: mechanized  gillnets, MHL: mechanized hooks and lines, MTN: mechanized  single-day trawl nets, NM: Non-mechanized, OBBN: outerboard  bag
Fig. 2. Gear-wise landings of eels along Odisha coast during 2007- 2007-2021(MDTN: mechanized multiday trawl nets, MGN: mechanized gillnets, MHL: mechanized hooks and lines, MTN: mechanized single-day trawl nets, NM: Non-mechanized, OBBN: outerboard bag

Grow-out farming technology for Indian Pompano in marine floating cage

Therefore, scientists at the former Division of Crustacean Fisheries decided to use the term "shrimp" except wherever the use of "shrimp" is mandatory. In this context, US-based journals/publications are insisting that authors use "shrimp" in their research papers.

Cage site selection

The term "shrimp" gradually became established with the beginning of the export of Indian shrimp to the United States, as it was essential to follow the buyer's preference on the labels. They prefer to use "shrimp" rather than "shrimp" and since the US was the main importer of Indian shrimp, this term became popular in the export market.

Cage structure

Nursery rearing

Grow-out culture

To avoid feed wastage during feeding via meshes of the inner cage, feed meshes (small mesh (1.0 mm) mesh) at 1.0 meter depth should be fixed in the inner cage mesh at the water and air interface. In grow out cultures the growth of the fish should be monitored every fortnight and the feeding rate adjusted based on the weight gain after each sampling.

Cage maintenance

For better feed digestion and assimilation, a minimum time gap of 3 to 4 hours should be given between two feeding schedules, so the feeding frequency should be decided accordingly. Based on various demonstrations, if the fish fingerlings from 20 to 25g are stocked at 25 numbers per m3, it takes almost 10 months to reach the size of 750-850g, while it takes 5 to 6 if it is sized at 100g. months to reach the same size.

Fish management

Fish harvest and marketing

Some of the selected buyers are Maxwell Exporters, Kochi, Kerala; MATSYAFED, Kerala; West Bengal Fisheries Development Corporation, Kolkata, West Bengal.


Best Management Practices (BMP) for cage culture of Indian pompano

Livelihood enhancement through cage farming -A success story

The stocking density varied depending on the cage volume and species of fish selected for farming in the coastal areas. The outbreak of pandemic covid-19 during the cage operation period brought significant changes and operational challenges in the cage fish farming activities. A production of 175 kg of sea bass and 50 kg of pearl whiting was obtained from the cage (48m3 volume) after the farming period of 8 months.

Experience shared by

This success has inspired many fish farmers and non-farmers in Moodady Panchayath to start cage farming in Moodady gram panchayath with 37 individuals in four self-help groups operating 76 cages in Moodady. In order to compare the profitability, the economic performance of cage farming of different types of fish was calculated. Depreciation of cage frame and accessories has been calculated using straight line method with an expected life of 5 years and financial indicators like NPV, BCR and IRR have been calculated for a project period of 5 years at 15% discount rate as per the method followed by Aswathy et al.

Mujukunnu fish farmers in fish farming

Sea bass culture

During the first two months of culture, they fed the fish pelleted feed (Growel) initially at 15 percent of body weight, then reduced to 5 percent of body weight as the culture progressed. The farmer can get an average production of 300-350 kg of sea bass from a single cage of 27m3 which gives a gross income of. The 27 m3 cage with a stocking density of 300 numbers of sea bass yielded a gross income of `1.5 lakhs and net profit of `74,200 in an 8 month culture period.

Red snapper culture

Pearl spot culture

The 27m3 cage with a stocking density of 300 heads of red snapper generated a gross turnover of `1.4 lakhs and a net profit of `68,700 in an 8-month cultivation period.

Nile Tilapia culture

They could achieve an average production of 400-450 kg Chitralada from 27m3 cages within a rearing period of 6 months and the fish were sold at the rate of `250/kg.

Technology upgradation introduced by farmers of

On-field feed storing shed-cum- watch shed

On-site marketing facilities

According to farmers, fish farming in net cages is a profitable venture and vast untapped areas in estuarine and brackish waters offer promising scope for increasing fish production through net cage farming in North Kerala. Constraints cited as the main bottlenecks for large-scale fish farming in net cages were lack of credit facilities, lack of insurance, high seed costs, natural disasters, otter attacks and conflicts with the tourist boats that operate them. For increasing adoption of cage farming technology, farmers have suggested setting up of a fish hatchery in North Kerala for continuous supply of quality fish seeds produced in the hatchery, financial support from the government to start cage farming and to meet the insurance requirements for cage farming.


Successful region specific coastal mariculture activities towards achieving Sustainable

Development Goals – A report

RAS, Biofloc systems, Aquaponics and IMTA are some of the coastal mariculture technologies that increase production with less negative impact on the environment. Development of land-based agricultural practices such as RAS, Aquaponics and tank growing systems to reduce pollution. Educated the fishermen on the availability of various government schemes such as PMMSY, SCSP programs etc.

Table 1. Region-specific interventions initiated by Karwar Regional Station
Table 1. Region-specific interventions initiated by Karwar Regional Station

Region-specific interventions toward achieving SDGs

13 Climate Action The station has been involved in popularizing seaweed cultivation in the coastal belts of Karnataka and Goa and has conducted several training programs on seaweed cultivation for farmers and entrepreneurs. Popularization of seaweed cultivation is progressing in the coastal belts of Karnataka and Goa with several training programs for farmers and entrepreneurs on seaweed cultivation. Several efforts have been undertaken to demonstrate seaweed cultivation and the successful standardization of seaweed cultivation for the first time on this coastline is in progress.

Technology for nursery rearing of Indian pompano, Trachinotus mookalee: Different

The institute plans to scale up the seed production of new candidate species to improve fish farming production. Also researched extending the seed availability of commercially important marine fin whales whose seed production has already been standardized. Seaweed micro-propagation is being attempted for a continuous supply of seaweed seedlings for agriculture.


Attempts are also being made for the first time to propagate native species of seaweed on a micro scale. Work is underway to develop a better management suite of practices for commercially farmed species. All of these breeding systems have their own pros and cons in terms of management and advocacy for these systems is based on the size of the stock and method of outgrowth systems that will be implemented for the species.

Nursery rearing of Indian pompano

Outdoor based system is performed with running or moving water in hapa set up or installed in earthen ponds, coastal cages and marine cages.

Indoor based nursery rearing systems

Flow-rough based nursery system

After transfer, hatchlings are fed 500 µ feed and 100% water exchange is recommended. These pipes and drain covers should be wrapped with nets with small meshes according to the size of the hatched fry, which will prevent the fry from escaping during water changes. The oxygen concentration should always be maintained above 4.0 ppm, and 1.5 ppm is considered the critical oxygen limit.

RAS based nursery raring

During daily use, the central drain in the tank is covered with PVC pipes or small slots or drain covers. Recommended feeding for the stuffed fry is 4-6 times a day at 5-6% of body weight or until satiety. Feeding into the system in a similar to a tank-based flow-through system and survival ranges between 80-95% depending on stock size and management practices.

Outdoor culture system

Recommended seed stock size is 1.0 to 3.0 g and stocking density can be increased to the total biomass of ~15 to 20 kg/m3, increase and decrease in stock number depends on the size of stock. Since the system is stocked with high stocking density and water is constantly recirculated, maintaining proper water quality with saturated level of dissolved oxygen is extremely essential to maintain high survival in the culture system.

Hapa based nursery rearing in coastal pond

Hapa based nursery rearing in coastal cages

Unlike indoor tank nurseries, due to harsh climatic conditions, the initial nursery size must be 3.0-5.0 g. The hapa mesh size should be 5mm and stitched with a 1.0 foot mesh at the water and air interface to prevent loss of feed through the hapa mesh. The frequency of feeding should be 4 to 6 times, and in the initial phase at least 4 times a day is highly recommended.

Hapa based nursery rearing in marine cages

Similar to coastal cages, hapa of 2x2x2.5 or 3x3x2.5 or other optimum size is preferred for nursery breeding and hapa should be prepared from HDPE materials to withstand in harsh sea weather. The feed net with the mosquito net must be fixed at the water-air interface to avoid spillage of liquid feed due to wave action. While in culture, the hapa should be replaced once a month to avoid blockage of water movement due to fouling in the mesh.

Effects of different nursery rearing environment on growth

The recommended initial seed stock size should be larger (~5.0 g) as wave action and water flow are high in the sea cage. Fingerlings in stock are fed 5-6% of body weight with a minimum of 4 times a day and liquid feed is recommended. Hapa installed in cages is prone to folding due to high wave action and therefore the use of ballast tubes in happa is preferred, which will avoid net folding due to wave action.

Seed transportation

The recommended stocking rate is less than 10 kg/m3 (400-500 counts/m3 at 20.0 g) and then the stocking rate is slowly reduced as the finger grows.

Points to be considered in nursery rearing of

Fish are very active during nursery rearing; therefore, they tend to jump to at least 15.0 cm above the water level. The water level must therefore be at least 30.0 cm below the tank surface to prevent fish fingers from falling out of the water. It is suggested to cover the tank surface with fishing net to prevent fish from jumping out of the tank.

Mapping of marketing channels and value

As the Indian pompano is a fast-moving pelagic fish, its dissolved oxygen requirement is very high; therefore, the concentration of dissolved oxygen must always be above 4.5 ppm during nursery. With proper feeding and water quality management, the expected survival in indoor tank-based cultures is 80-95%, while in hapa-based outdoor culture systems it is 70-85%, and survival depends mainly on practices management. Possible stress factors are: overcrowding, more waste accumulation at the bottom of the tank, rough handling, higher water temperature and lower dissolved oxygen content.

The main sources contributing to the state's total crustacean declines during the period were penaeid shrimp (66%) followed by non-penaeid shrimp (21%), crabs (13%), and lobsters (<1%). The main gears contributing to the state's total marine landings were multi-day mechanized trawlers (54%) followed by mechanized gill nets (12%) and purse seines (7%). Funding sources for various value chain operations came from the private sector, cooperative societies, fishermen's associations, as well as institutional finance.

Market chain mapping of giant tiger prawn Penaeus monodon

This study reports on the marketing systems through value chain analysis of selected shellfish resources landed off the coast of West Bengal. This study mapped the various marketing channels and value chain analysis of some commercially important shellfish landing at Purba, Medinipur. Value chain analysis was carried out by mapping the value chain of the product from the destination center to the consumer.

Market chain mapping of mud spiny lobster Panulirus polyphagus

Market chain mapping of three spot swimming crab Portunus sanguinolentus

Perceived marketing constraints

Market chain mapping of Pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis

During contacts with stakeholders, it was reported that the immediate needs are cold chain and storage facilities, insulated vehicles and hygienic markets. The purpose of this study was to analyze the flow of selected shellfish landings in the value chain by mapping the value chain of selected shellfish and documenting the responses of value chain actors. It also explored the contributions of shellfish landings among value chain actors by revealing the price spread at various nodes, which will be useful for stakeholders to streamline their operations in a cost-effective manner, increase earnings in value chain actors and influence credit repayment. processes.

Note on an albino spadenose shark, Scoliodon laticaudus from the north-east coast of India

Alterations in autosomally located tyrosinase and P genes are reported to be the most common causes of total or partial albinism. Key morphometric features of the selected specimen were found to be well within the range of a normal specimen of the same sex captured in the same region except the color pattern. The specimen is without any signs of disease and completely free of parasites and was absolutely healthy.

Fig. 1. (a) Albino S. laticaudus (b) Normal S. laticaudus landed at Digha, West Bengal, India
Fig. 1. (a) Albino S. laticaudus (b) Normal S. laticaudus landed at Digha, West Bengal, India

Rare occurrence of cirrate octopod Opisthoteuthis sp

Report on incidence of Cepheid jellyfish


Fig. 2. Gear-wise landings of eels along Odisha coast during 2007- 2007-2021(MDTN: mechanized multiday trawl nets, MGN: mechanized  gillnets, MHL: mechanized hooks and lines, MTN: mechanized  single-day trawl nets, NM: Non-mechanized, OBBN: outerboard  bag
Fig. 4. Landing trends of eels along Odisha coast during 2007-2021
Fig. 3. Species composition of eels along Odisha coast during 2007- 2007-2021
Fig. 6. Deskinning of eels for dry fish preparation


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