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ENGINEERING GEOLOGY - IARE

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CO1 Understand the role of geology in the design and construction process of underground openings in rock. CO5 Have knowledge of design and construction procedures necessary to safely control rock behavior in underground openings. CLO4 Understand the case histories of failure of some Civil Engineering constructions due to geological disadvantages.

Geology (in Greek Geo means Earth, Logos means Science) is a branch of science that deals with the study of the Earth. The study of the earth includes the whole earth, its origin, structure, composition and history (including the evolution of life) and the nature of its processes. Knowledge of the nature of the rocks is very necessary when tunnelling, building roads and when determining the stability of cuts and slopes.

The problems of foundation of dams, bridges and buildings are directly related to the geology of the area where they will be built. A BRIEF STUDY OF CASE HISTORIES OF THE COLLAPSE OF SOME CIVIL ENGINEERING STRUCTURES DUE TO GEOLOGICAL RETURNS:.

Failure due to earthquake 2. Failure due to landslide

Failure due to chemical weathering of foundation rocks (Effect Of Alkali-Silica Reaction, Sulfate & Chloride On

Failure due to physical weathering (temperature variations, or by heavy rain, or by physical breaking)

Failure due to increase of fractures in geological structures (fault, folds & unconformities)

Kaila Dam, Gujarat, India

Baldwin Dam (USA)

As a branch of geology, it is concerned with the 'various processes of physical factors such as wind, water, glaciers and sea waves', which run on these agents and constantly change the surface of the earth. The study of petrology is most important for a civil engineer, in the selection of suitable rocks for building blocks, road metals, etc. Petrology is the study of the nature of rocks and the processes that form the rocks that make up the Earth.

Structural geology is the study of factors such as origin, occurrence, classification, types and effects of various secondary structures such as folds, faults, joints and unconformities. Mineralogy is a branch of geology that specializes in the scientific study of the chemistry, crystal structure and physical (including optical) properties of minerals. Methods of studying minerals Each mineral has its own chemical composition and atomic structure.

It is the basic unit of the SiO4 tetrahedron in them which occurs in a 3-dimensional framework type structure. The study of the interaction of light with minerals, mostly limited to visible light and usually further limited to the non-opaque minerals. Another application occurs because the optical properties of minerals are related to the crystal chemistry of the mineral - for example, the mineral's chemical composition, crystal structure, order/disorder.

The primary minerals are those that are formed due to the crystallization of the molten magma.

MODULE-II PETROLOGY

CLO6 Understand the phenomena of real-time problems such as sick versus healthy using binomial distribution. CLO8 Understand the phenomena of the real-time problem of predicting football scores using Poisson distribution. CL010 Describe the mapping of the normal distribution in the real world to analyze the stock market 50.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY(DENSITY)

The most common type of volcanic eruption occurs when magma (the term for lava when it is below the Earth's surface) is released from a volcanic vent. Liquid basaltic lava is jetted into the air from a seat or line of vents. Strombolian eruptions are distinctive eruptions of fluid lava (usually basalt or basaltic andesite) from the mouth of a magma-filled vent.

The explosions of lava, which can reach heights of hundreds of meters, are caused by the bursting of large gas bubbles that travel up the magma-filled conduit until they reach open air. Volcanic eruptions create powerful explosions where material can travel faster than 350 meters per second (800 mph) and rise several kilometers into the air. The largest and most violent of all types of volcanic eruptions are Plinian eruptions.

They are caused by the fragmentation of gaseous magma, and are usually associated with very viscous magmas. It consists of 55 to 65 percent silica with average amounts of iron, magnesium, calcium, potassium, and sodium.

Chemical Composition

Intrusive igneous rocks are formed from magma that cools and solidifies in the planet's crust. Extrusive igneous rocks, additionally called volcanic rocks, are formed on the surface of the crust due to partial melting of rocks. The largest determining criterion is the type of phenocryst, followed by the mineralogy of the groundmass.

Mafic rock, material with a lower silicon content than felsic rock, with a predominance of mafic minerals pyroxenes, olivines and calcareous plagioclase; these rocks (e.g. basalt, gabbro) are generally dark colored and have a higher density than felsic rocks. Previously formed rocks are subjected to mechanical or physical disintegration and thus the rocks are broken up into fragments of different sizes. These are called fragmental rock materials or clastic materials which become source materials for the formation of clastic sedimentary rocks.

These materials are extracted, transported and deposited in suitable places by various exogenous processes (geological factors) such as flowing water (rivers), wind, glaciers and sea waves. When such chemically active water comes into contact with country rocks along its path, soluble materials are removed from the rocks. These chemical materials, after settling, compacting and cementing, form chemical sedimentary rocks such as gypsum and salt rocks.

The sediments resulting from the disintegration or decomposition of plants and animals are called organic sediments.

Definition:-

The knowledge of the geological work in natural entities such as water, wind, ice and earthquakes helps to plan and carry out major construction works. For example, knowledge of erosion, transport and deposition greatly helps to solve the expensive problems of river control, coastal and soil conservation. Knowledge of its quantity and depth of occurrence is necessary in connection with water supply, irrigation, excavation and many other construction works.

The foundation problems of dams, bridges and buildings are directly related to the geology of the area where they are to be built. When digging tunnels, building roads, canals, docks and determining the stability of cuts and slopes, knowledge about the nature and structure of rocks is very necessary.

Physical Geology

Petrology:-

Branches

Sedimentary petrology focuses on the composition and texture of sedimentary rocks (rocks such as sandstone, shale, or limestone that consist of pieces or particles derived from other rocks or biological or chemical deposits, and are usually bound together in a matrix of finer material). Metamorphic petrology focuses on the composition and texture of metamorphic rocks (rocks such as schist, marble, gneiss, or schist that began as sedimentary or igneous rocks but have undergone chemical, mineralogical, or textural changes due to extreme pressure, temperature, or both). Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism.

Structural geology

Weathering of Rocks

Excavation

Blasting

RIPPING

Uses a tractor with an attached tine or tines that are lowered into the rock and pulled to break up material erosion.

DRILLING

Downhole 2. Step drilling

Installing the Keil software and loading the project

MODULE-III

PHYSICAL GEOLOGY AND ROCK MECHANICS

CLO10 Understand the importance of various associated geological structures such as folds, faults, joints and unconformities found at the site of foundations. CLO12 Understand how to choose a suitable site for dams and reservoirs to avoid seepage, silting and tipping. CLO14 Locate various underground mines and rock bodies using geophysical surveys such as gravity methods, magnetic methods, electrical methods, seismic methods, radiometric methods and geothermal methods.

STRATIGRAPHY

Lithostratigraphy

Part of the ‘Hello, Embedded World’ example (restructured version)

Biostratigraphy

Paleontology

It involves the study of fossils to determine the evolution and interactions of organisms with each other and.

MODULE-IV

GEOLOGICAL HAZARDS

GEOLOGICAL TIME SCALE

OUTCROP

Message Queues

Message Queues…

STRIKE AND DIP

Saving Memory and Power…

The primary method for conserving battery power is to turn off parts or the entire system whenever possible. A very common power saving mode is one in which the microprocessor stops executing instructions, stops any built-in peripherals, and stops its clock circuit.

FOLDS

Types of Folds

Syncline

Remote Procedure Call (RPC)…

Symmetrical

Asymmetrical

Task Synchronization

Open folds

Closed Folds

FAULTS

HOST AND TARGET MACHINES

CAUSES OF FAULTING

FAULT PLANE

FOOT WALL AND HANGING WALL

SLIP

LINKERS AND LOCATORS

MODULE-V

GEOLOGY OF DAM AND RESERVOIR SITE

CLO22 Determination of shear strength of soil using direct shear test and triaxial test in various drainage conditions.

EARTHQUAKES

Seismic waves are waves of energy that travel through the layers of the Earth and result from an earthquake, explosion, or a volcano that emits low-frequency acoustic energy. Seismic wave fields are recorded by a seismometer, hydrophone (in water) or accelerometer. The velocity tends to increase with depth and ranges from about 2 to 8 km/s in the Earth's crust, to 13 km/s in the deep mantle.

Classification and causes of Earthquake

Based on the causes responsible for their occurrence, earthquakes are described as tectonic or non-tectonic. Tectonic earthquakes are exclusively due to internal causes, due to disturbances or adjustments of geological formations that occur inside the earth, they are less frequent, but more intense and therefore more destructive in nature. Non-tectonic earthquakes, on the other hand, are generally due to external or surface causes.

This type of earthquake is very common, but of lower intensity and generally not destructive in nature.

Types

Includes Primary and Secondary waves

Secondary waves(S-Waves)

Definition

RICHTER MAGNITUDE SCALE

ARM comparison instructions

CAUSES

EFFECTS

SEISMIC BELT

C assignment, cont’d

SEISMIC WAVES

WAVES

WAVES

ARM flow of control

PRECAUTIONS

If statement, cont’d

FIR filter, cont’.d

LANDSLIDES

LANDSLIDES HAZARDS

References

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