The morphology of the bubbles and the rate of heat transfer are significantly affected only above the minimum threshold strength of the applied electric field. The behavior of the bubble after leaving the surface at different degrees of subcooling of the liquid was also analyzed.

## Film Boiling Regime

*Factors influencing interface growth**Bubble release in film boiling: A deterministic phenomena**Electrohydrodynamics in film boiling**Influence of reduced gravity*

The wall superheat, (∆Tsup =Tw −Tsat) is the difference between the wall temperature (Tw) and the saturation temperature (Tsat) and the undercooling, (∆Tsub = Tsat−TL) is the difference between the saturation temperature and the liquid bulk temperature (TL). The electric field polarizes the liquid's molecules (bound charges), which together with free charges (ions/electrons) drift towards the free surface [7].

## Nucleate Boiling Regime

### Importance of microlayer

Voutsinos and Judd [62] observed the significant contribution of microlayer evaporation to the overall heat transfer rate. 77] to understand and demonstrate the effect of microlayers on the heat transfer mechanism during bubble growth.

Influence of liquid subcooling

## Transition Boiling Regime

The wettability of the surface plays an important role in the transition process from film to core cooking. The collapse of the vapor film occurs quickly and frequently in the case of a superhydrophilic surface and in supercooled liquid.

## Interface Capturing Techniques

An important attribute of the level set method is that the interface is inherently smooth. We can assume that the interface consists of a sequence of grid-aligned segments.

## Objectives of the Research

Therefore, the first objective of this thesis is to analyze the variations in bubble growth phenomena and associated heat transfer during film boiling. The final aim of the thesis is to analyze the effect of surface wetting during the film boiling.

## Layout of the Thesis

A distributed grid arrangement from Harlow and Welch [149] is used to locate the velocity and scalar functions in the computation cell, as shown in Figure. In the energy saving equation (equation 2.3), T, k and cp are the temperature. the thermal conductivity and specific heat of the medium, respectively.

## Jump Conditions at the Liquid-Vapor Interface

The fsv term in the momentum conservation equation (Eq. 2.2) is the surface tension force per unit volume defined by the continuum surface force model of Brackbill et al. For the case of saturated film boiling, the energy conservation equation is solved only for the vapor phase since the liquid phase is considered to be at constant saturation temperature. SI(t) is the phase interface at the common boundary of two regions moving with velocity UI.

## CLSVOF Approach of Interface Capturing

*Advection algorithm for volume fraction**Advection algorithm for level-set function**Interface reconstruction**Smoothening technique*

In the CLSVOF method, the level set function is used to define the interface geometry and is defined as a function of the distance from the interface. Volume fraction advection requires that the position of the interface be known at each time step. The interface in each two-phase cell is reconstructed based on the updated values of the set level functions.

Surface Tension Model

## Discretisation of the Governing Equations

The discretized form of the momentum equation is explicitly solved for the known volume fraction field Fn which gives rise to an intermediate velocity field which may not be divergence free. The advection algorithm and the explicit treatment of convective terms lead to the time constraints in the numerical treatment of the problem. Again, the explicit treatment of the surface tension term leads to a limitation as given in Brackbill et al.

## Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) Model

### Modified governing equations with EHD

The formulation of the problem is based on a rounded MAC network with x and several electric field components located on the vertical and horizontal faces of the computer cells. The modified form of the momentum equation with an additional volume term of the electric field force is expressed as,.

Discretisation

## Microlayer Modelling for Nucleate Boiling

The liquid inside the microlayer is assumed to be stagnant, and therefore the effect of convection currents on the microlayer evaporation is neglected. Thermal energy is conducted solely due to conduction through the microlayer to the vapor bubble. The thickness of the microlayer changes with time due to evaporation and must therefore be updated after each time step in the simulation.

## Boundary Conditions

The same set of governing equations for mass, momentum and energy were used in the case of nucleate boiling as in the case of film boiling (Section 2.1). However, in the case of nucleate boiling, the vapor temperature is assumed to be constant and the energy equation is solved only in the liquid region. In the simulations performed for film boiling, it is possible to vary the length of the domain along the horizontal and vertical directions, the dimensions of which are proportional to the most unstable wavelength of the Taylor-Helmholtz instability or the fastest growing Berenson wavelength, i.e.

## Validations of the Solver

Hydrodynamic transition in bubble emission pattern during film boiling Mode of vapor emission during film boiling varies significantly with the change in surface superheat. When an electric potential difference exists across a two-phase interface, a jump in the electric field value occurs due to the difference in dielectric permittivity between the media. The present investigations in the thesis considered the throttling of the dielectric permittivities using the weighted harmonic mean interpolation (WHM) as described in Sect.

## Summary

The effect of increasing intensity of electric field on the heat transfer rate at different superheats is determined. The effect of electric field at a given superheat was studied to observe the change in interfacial morphology and heat transfer properties. The effect of electric field on change in bubble deformation is another focus of the present investigation.

## Grid Refinement Study

In the present study for film boiling, a grid mesh of 120×240 and the time step of . The following sections clearly describe the effect of superheat, the effect of electric field and combined effect of varying electric field at different superheat values.

## Effect of Wall Superheat

The temporal frequency of bubble release increases with increase in superheat, as can be observed from the increase in the number of peaks corresponding to the instants of bubble release. The time-averaged Nusselt number value is controlled by the maximum peak value and the temporal frequency of bubble growth in the domain. 3.6(a) - 3.6(j), the changes in the bubble growth pattern after the first set of bubble formations are shown.

## Effect of Electric Field

At a low electric field intensity (1×104 V/m), the change in the number of bubble formation sites is negligible. The growth rate of the bubbles at the antinode increases as the applied electric field increases. The growth of the bubble at the antinode, in the absence of an electric field, is also shown in the figure.

## Combined Effect of Electric Field and Superheat

From the variation of the Nusselt number, the importance of the electric field intensity for improving the heat transfer can be observed. Also, the maximum heat transfer rate is practically not affected at a lower value of the electric field. In the latter case, the most dominant wavelength without the electric field (λB) is almost equal to that of the wavelength obtained with the electric field (λE), i.e.

## Summary

The electric field is found to affect the periodicity of bubble emission and heat transfer rate only after reaching a threshold value of intensity. Heat transfer rate deteriorates in reduced gravity conditions that can be recovered by an externally imposed electric field. The dominance of electric field on the heat transfer rate is found to be more in reduced gravity conditions.

## Introduction and Definition of the Problem

The bubble dimensions and the distance between adjacent bubbles are expected to be improved in the case of reduced gravity compared to those under normal gravity conditions. To analyze the variation in bubble release pattern and bubble shape under normal and reduced gravity conditions, numerical simulations have been performed with and without the application of an electric field. In the following sections, we have tried to explore the effect of variation in the gravity level on the bubble dynamics, i.e.

## Boiling at Different Levels of Gravity

The spacing between adjacent bubble formation sites increases significantly with decreasing gravity levels. Therefore, there is a significant reduction in pinch speed due to the reduction in gravity. Also, the initial time and the total growth time of the bubble are longer in the case of reduced gravity compared to that in normal gravity.

## Boiling with EHD at Different Levels of Gravity

Application of electric field of the same intensity in normal and reduced gravity shows different effects. The difference in percentage increase of heat flux with the application of electric force increases with the intensity of the electric field. The heat flux plots at different gravity levels at a specified high intensity (2×105V/m) of the electric field tend to become dense.

## Self-similarity During Bubble Growth

168], the instability in the presence of stretching that occurs at the neck is the result of the axial velocity of the fluid around the growing tip. Taylor mode of instability, we performed self-similarity analysis of the profiles of growing vapor bubbles. This indicates the variation in the values of exponents α and β with the increase in the value of the superheat.

## Summary

A detailed study of the changes in the microlayer structure due to different ways of cooking was carried out. A power-law curve was obtained to depict the growth rate of the bubble depending on the degree of superheating at the wall. The properties of the liquid are listed in Table 5.1 for water at atmospheric pressure.

## Grid Refinement Study

The effect of surface temperature on bubble departure time and departure diameter has been discussed. The analyzes are performed to understand the behavior of the bubble after it leaves the heated surface under a saturated and supercooled liquid environment. However, it is observed that the change in departure diameter is 0.2% for the first case and 1.6% for the second case.

## Validation of the Model

The profiles match closely for grid meshes of 200×400 and 250×500, while for 150×300 grid mesh the bubble profile has some difference with the other two cases at the same time. For the present studies, a grid mask of 200×400 is used for the simulation domain as represented by the scheme in fig. The initial microlayer thickness has been obtained after several simulations to achieve an acceptable match between departure time and departure diameter with available results in the literature.

## Effect of Surface Superheat

As the distance from the center of the bubble increases, the emptying time increases. This is evident from the fact that the initial thickness of the microlayer increases with distance from the center. This increases the overall value of the heat flux from the wall to the liquid, which reaches a maximum during the removal of the bubble from the surface.

## Boiling under Subcooled Liquid

The variation in the vertical speed (rate of ascent) of the bubble after departure is also plotted in the figure. While in the supercooled boiling state of ∆Tsub = 1.5 K, there is a relatively larger fluctuation in the velocity during the same duration of the bubble. to get up. The fluctuations in the bubble velocity further increase in the case of a supercooled state of ∆Tsub = 3.0 K as the condensation rate increases.

## Summary

The phenomenon of liquid-solid contact during film boiling due to the effect of surface wetting is the main focus of this study. In this chapter, the numerical results regarding the bubble growth during film boiling and the instabilities occurring at the interface due to the effect of surface wetting have been presented. In Chapter 1 (Section 1.3), the importance of surface wetting during transient boiling has been explained, while the research developed so far is discussed.

## Transition Due to High Surface-Wettability

It can be observed that at the beginning of liquid contact, the vapor fraction begins to decrease suddenly due to the continuous detachment of bubbles from the surface. From the plots it can be observed that due to the rupture of the vapor film in the case of γ = 38◦ , the heat flux increases significantly compared to that in regular film boiling corresponding to γ = 50◦ . A frequent change in heat transfer results due to the intermittent contacts of the fluids with the heated surface.

## Electric Field Induced Transition

However, when the intensity of the applied electric field is further increased (EV/m), the transition can be clearly observed due to the liquid-solid contacts at various locations across the surface. The transition of boiling regimes with the application of a specified intensity of the electric field also depends on the degree of superheating of the surface. The vapor film does not tear, even when applying an electric field with an intensity of 2×105 V/m.

Effect of Biphilic Surface

## Summary

The bubble emission loses its temporal periodicity with the higher value of electric field intensity (2×105 V/m), but spatial periodicity remains unaffected. For a lower value of liquid subcooling (∆Tsub = 1.5 K), the bubble showed a decrease in growth rate before departure. While at a relatively higher supercooled value (∆Tsub = 4.0 K), the bubble stops leaving the surface and starts oscillating at its maximum volume.

## Future Perspectives

1971) "Boiling Heat Transfer in the Presence of Nonuniform DC Electric Fields", Fundamentals of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Vol. 1990) "EHD enhancement of nucleate boiling", Journal of Heat Transfer, vol. 1970) "On Bubble Growth Rates", International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 1978) "Effect of System Pressure on Evaporative Heat Transfer in Microlayers", Journal of Heat Transfer, vol. 1969) "Microlayer and Bubble Growth in Nucleated Pool Boiling", International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.

Pool boiling curve for saturated water

Two Dimensional Film Boiling Model

MAC grid arrangement

Physical domain with fictitious boundary cells and a single two-phase

Volume fraction fluxed through the righ-face of computational cell

Transition region around the interface

Microlayer behavior during bubble lifecycle

Variation of y-coordinate of rising and falling fluid with time

Hydrodynamic transition observed through the present numerical sim-

Schematic for the flat interface jump problem

Jump in electric field across the interface

Schematic of the computational domain