To address these challenges, the present study was conducted to develop a formulation of pigments extracted from marigold flowers for its use as a natural food colorant. Comparison of the antioxidant activities of xanthophylls extracted by different techniques did not show any significant difference in DPPH, ABTS and CUPRAC assays. About 72% of the extracted xanthophylls were found by switching the polarity of the eutectic solvent.
Accelerated storage stability study recommended safe use and storage of the powder formulations at subzero temperature, but 39-86% degradation of xanthophylls was observed at higher temperatures. Maize qualifies as one of the potential crops in the realization of a broader vision to double Boer's income by 2022.
Floriculture & Landscape Architecture
The present set of HMSSRs was observed to be highly informative and served as a DNA marker source for future molecular research in mango. It is concluded that 24 ICAR-IARI mango hybrids have been characterized based on DUS guidelines and new hypervariable SSRs.
Genetics and Plant Breeding
Variations in proline, total sugars and reducing sugar levels indicated variable response of inoculated treatments. Significant improvement in co-inoculated treatments was also observed on root traits (length, volume, area, etc.) compared to single inoculations and T2.
Molecular Biology and Biotechnology
Chickpea plants bio-primed with endophyte showed a better survival rate against the Fusarium pathogen with protection over control ranging from 57 to 75%. The endophyte bio-primed plants showed significant increase in plant biomass (128% to 250% compared to the control). Among the endophytes tested on plants, the isolate NIBSM_CaS37 was found to be the best in protecting plants against Fusarium.
Tripartite interaction (chickpea-Fusarium endophyte) was studied to understand the differential expression of genes likely involved in conferring endophyte-mediated resistance to Fusarium. An increased expression of the genes namely NAC transcription factor (NAC TF), Auxin-binding protein ABP19a (AUX BP), 14-3-3-like protein (14-3-3 P), Linoleate 9S lipoxygenase (LOX) and Leucine-Rich Repeat Protein (LRR) was found in the endophyte bioprimed and pathogen-inoculated plants at an early stage of pathogen infection. Bacterial chickpea endophytes with antagonistic activity against Fusarium wilt can be included in an integrated disease control module and gain insight into the molecular mechanism of endophyte-mediated resistance.
Plant Genetic Resources
Seed Science & Technology
Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry
C mineralization was highest in normal soils with glucose on days 3, 6, 13, and 23 of incubation, while heat-stressed soils without glucose had the lowest values. The FYM@ 10 t ha-1 treatment had the highest C mineralization in all 4 soil sets, followed by the 50% NPK+25% GM-N+25% FYM-N treatment, while the control treatment had the lowest C mineralization. Z with an SRI value of 0.84, the 50% NPK + 25% GM-N + 25% FYM-N treatment was the most resistant to heat stress, while the control soil was the least resistant.
Under a rice-rice cropping system in the acid Alfisol of Assam, available Zn, available K, acid phosphatase activity and bulk density were selected as the key indicators of soil health. Integrated treatments which were 50% NPK+25% GM-N+25%FYM-N and FYM@10 t ha-1 had the highest SHI than rest of the treatments. Under a CA-based rice-wheat system in the Indo-Gangetic plain, triple zero tillage with triple residue retention can be advised, and CT-based rice-growing farmers in Assam can benefit from integrated nutrient management practices.
An in vitro study showed that the nanoemulsions provided 3-4 times more activity compared to the corresponding coarse emulsions. Antioxidant activity was higher in carotenoid fractions of orange peel compared to other peels, while in phenolic fractions mosambi peel showed the highest activity. The prebiotic activity of three different pectins was performed using a method similar to that of inulin, which showed 55.23.
Using these resistant carbohydrates, the potential of bioethanol production through a fermentation process using an appropriate yeast culture was evaluated. These materials could be effectively used as a potential food product and as raw material for bioethanol production.
During bulk storage of onions (500 kg), fungal and bacterial counts in ozone-treated onions remained Title of the thesis. However, since the mid-2000s, the government has redoubled its efforts to encourage agricultural growth through a plethora of agricultural development initiatives, including the National Food Security Mission and the National Agriculture Development Program aka Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana. There was a phenomenal positive shift in the pattern of access of beneficiary farmers to agricultural development programs after the implementation of NFSM.
Analysis of socio-economic transformation brought about by NFSM before and after renewal revealed reliable and significant changes in the lives of beneficiaries than non-beneficiaries of both states. Correlation analysis of the contribution of access variables to the overall socio-economic transformation revealed that for the beneficiary farmers of Karnataka, among the socio-economic variables, education had established an inverse trend while for Uttar Pradesh the social participation and education of the beneficiary farmers marked a opposite trend. Analysis of the level of knowledge of the NFSM departmental staff revealed that more than half of the departmental staff were in the high knowledge category in both states.
Increased sensitization of the farming community, timely action plans and improved capacity development programs of the department's staff can be a series of measures that can be put in place to sustain these programs for the greater good. The characterization properties of the designs were studied and the association of the proposed designs with t-packing designs was also demonstrated. General expressions of the information matrices were derived to study the properties of these designs.
The effect size of significant variables on rice yield ranged from 800 kg ha-1 for a small proportion of farmers to a response of less than 300 kg ha-1 among a large group of farmers. Irrigation and fertilizers were the two most important energy inputs, accounting for just over 75% of cumulative energy input. The family Cicadellidae (Order: Hemiptera) is one of the largest families of insects with more than 22,000 described species.
Floriculture and Landscape Architecture
Food Science and Post Harvest Technology
Therefore, broadening the genetic base of the polyembryonic genotypes for different rootstock traits may make them more desirable for use as rootstock. Irradiation created significant variation in the examined morphological and endomorphic traits and resulted in delayed germination and decreases in germination percentage, number of seedlings emerging per core, plant height, inter-nodal length and number of leaves with increasing dose of irradiation. Molecular characterization revealed high heterogeneity in the putative mutant populations and the high allelic richness and average Shannon's information observed in the putative mutant population suggest that mutation created variability in the treated population.
In both combinations, the seed coat of the F1:2 seeds was green, while in the F2:3 generation they were separated in the ratio of 9:3:4 for green, yellow and brown, respectively, indicating that the inheritance of the seed coat color was controlled by two genes in complementary interaction. Inheritance of seed shape and 100-seed weight in the F2 generations indicated that it was controlled by polygenes. Thirteen of the 42 QTLs mapped to known loci, while the remaining 29 were novel, of which 17 were major QTLs.
Genetics of seed coat color and QTL mapping and identification of underlying key candidate genes for seed shape and 100 seed weight in soybean were thus successfully performed in this work. These study findings would be very useful in marker breeding to develop soybean varieties with improved seed weight and desired seed shape. Untargeted gas chromatography and mass spectroscopic analyzes revealed significant modulation of metabolite profiles in cyanobacterial biofilms compared to partners. A maize crop mesocosm experiment and field trials conducted between Kharif 2019-20 and 2020-21 with individual cultures and biofilm formulations showed that application of the An-Tr biofilm formulation resulted in a 14- and 3.3-fold increase. in soil nitrogen nitrogen and chlorophyll activity over RDF in the mid-vegetative phase.
Among all microbial formulations, cyanobacterial biofilms - An-Tr and An-PW5 improved the mobilization of Fe and/or Zn and their translocation in maize grains. Transgenic plants overexpressing the OsvWA36 gene from the constitutive ubiquitin promoter have been developed in a susceptible cultivar TP309. In all assays, non-transgenic plants showed marked lesions while transgenic plants showed immune responses.
Globally, Fusarium is a notable genus of phytopathogenic fungi that causes dry rot of potato tubers during storage. Three different species namely Fusarium sambucinum, Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum were found to be the dominant species among the collected isolates. The glycemic index and glycemic load were also significantly (p<0.005) elevated in the diseased tubers compared to control, indicating the unsuitability of dry rot-infected tubers for human consumption.
Among the suitable management approaches to mitigate this disease, sodium metabisulfite (0.3 M), melatonin (15 mM) and silver nanoparticles derived from Chaetomium globosum (150 mg/L) have been observed to be highly effective. Our study showed a significant negative correlation (R=-0.88) between GI and RS, while a negative correlation (R=-0.79) was found between GI and amylose content. Furthermore, storage of cooked potato tuber starch at 4 °C for different periods (up to 48 h) resulted in a significant decrease in GI and increase in RS.
Adding oils to potatoes during cooking decreased GI and glycemic load (GL), with an increase in RS. Further, storage of the cooked potato oil combination at 4°C for 48 hours resulted in decreased GI and increased RS. In another study, the effect of combining potatoes with eight different types of vegetables was studied on predicted glycemic response and associated traits.
Out of eight vegetables taken in combination, fenugreek leaves, cauliflower and fenugreek seeds were found to be effective in lowering the average GI of both varieties to approximately 71, 70 and 68 compared to control (79). This study was carried out for the molecular identification of the cytoplasm and genotype of the fertility restorer Ms locus in the selected 24 individual plants of 35 commercially adopted short-day varieties. The results of morphological characterization of the studied accession showed no correlation with molecular data.
Water Science & Technology