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1.7.1 Cole Crops Cauliflower

In the mid-late group, a cauliflower variety, DC 76 was identified for release through AICRP (VC) group meeting.

Another variety DC 5 was found promising for December- January maturity, based on its compact white curds. Among early hybrids developed by using CMS line, DCH 3 (28.5 t/ha) and DCH 9 (29.1 t/ha) were found more promising than the check PES (25.0 t/ha). Similarly, 3 hybrids, viz., DCH 801 (49.0 t/ha), DCH 804 (45.0 t/ha) and DCH 814 (43.0 t/ha) were found to be superior to the check Pusa Sharad (37.5 t/ha). The other promising hybrid combinations in the group were CH 501, H 171, H 922, H 939, H 940, H 954 and H 971. For resistance breeding to downy mildew and black rot, 15 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and 9 near isogenic lines (NILs) were advanced to third selfing stage for developing these as mapping populations.

Sterile cytoplasms from Brassica canariance, Brassica tournefortii, and Brassica oxyrhina were attempted by using embryo rescue technique in order to create diverse sterile cytoplasms in Brassica oleracea background for exploiting them in hybrid combinations.

In late (snowball) group of cauliflower, 50 new hybrid were developed using three CMS lines, Sera K I, Sera K 25 and Call B I. Consistent superiority for yield was found in four hybrids, viz., KTH 44 (24.2 t/ha), KTH 28 (24.0 t/ha),

KTH 40 (23.2 t/ha) and KTH 22 (22.7 t/ha) with 35%, 34%, 29% and 26% economic heterosis, respectively, besides showing superiority for other horticultural traits. Two new CMS based hybrid combinations KTH 50 (26.0 t/ha) and KTH 47 (25.2 t/ha) showed promise. Two entries, viz., KTH 1 (20.84 t/ha) and KTH 2 (22.83 t/ha) under AICRP (VC) in AVT-II trial gave 16% and 20% higher yield compared to that of the check. Back cross (BC1) progenies were advanced to transfer CMS system into 10 promising genotypes after making selection for superior horticultural and reproductive traits. New cross combinations were made to transfer CMS in other 5 genotypes. Selections, namely, KT 16 (21. 8 t/ha) Sel 26 (21.5 t/ha), KT 22 (20 t/ha) and, KT 9 (19.3 t/ha) were found promising for yield contributing and horticultural traits.

The lines, viz., KT 2, SR 05, KT 2587 and KT 187 developed through hybridization were found to be multi-resistant to black rot, Sclerotinia rot and downy mildew under artificial inoculated conditions at seedling stage. In mid maturity group of cauliflower, selection DC 76 (28. 6 t/ha), Himlata 1 (32.3 t/ha) and Pusa Sharad (33. 6 t/ha) and Hybrid 91 (34.8 t/ha) gave superior yields during summer rainy season in the hills.

Seventy-six lines segregating generations/selections including CMS lines along with the respective maintainers were maintained after selection. Four new lines were collected and being maintained. Cabbage

Evaluation of 24 SI based hybrids of cabbage revealed the superiority of KCH 19 (48.6 t/ha) followed by KCH 9204 (47.4 t/ha) and KCH 92 (44.8 t/ha) for yield over the standard check (41.9 t/ha). However, for reduced frame size, hybrid KCH 9836 was found to be promising. KCH 921 was found to be the earliest in maturity (58.5 days). Cabbage hybrid KCH 5 being tested in the AICRP (VC) was promoted to AVT-II.

It gave a yield of 47.6 t/ha at IARI Regional Station, Katrain.

Among the nine promising selections of cabbage evaluated, C 6 was found the most promising for higher yield and smaller frame size.

Improved source of Ogu CMS was transferred to ten promising lines/varieties of cabbage. Twelve F2’s, 4 varieties and 5 F1’s were subjected to artificial screening against DBM in polyhouse conditions. A total of 13 plants were selected in 8 F2’s (two plants each in crosses of C 8 x 204, GA x 204, C.No.8 x MR-1, MR-1 x C- 8 and 83-1 x MR-1 and one plant each in POA x 208, 83-6 x 204 and GA x MR-1). Knol- khol

Knol-khol variety KS1 was entered in the AICRP (VC) trials for its multi-location testing. It yielded 43% higher than the standard check in the IET at IARI Regional Station, Katrain.

1.7.2 Cucurbitaceous Crops Bottle gourd

In bottle gourd, the earlier released variety Pusa Santushti (Sel P 6) for NCR, Delhi was identified and recommended by XXVI AICRP (VC) Group meeting held at Bhubaneswar for commercial cultivation in Zone IV and Zone VII. It was also observed to be promising for setting fruits under low temperature (10-12 oC night temperature) as well as high temperature (35-40 oC night temperature). The variety was also superior in nutritional values. Ash gourd

Two promising selections DAG 4 and DAG 6 developed earlier were evaluated under AVT-I and found to yield higher than the check both in summer and kharif seasons. They gave 44.5 tonnes and 47.0 tonnes yields/ha, respectively during kharif season. Both were earlier in maturity than IVAG 90 and PAG 71 (checks). Out of 36 F1 hybrids tested under large scale yield trial, two promising hybrids DAGH 16 and DAGH 46 gave average yields of 57.50 t/ha and 52.00 t/ha, respectively, which were 38.0%

and 30.5% higher than that of the check Pusa Ujwal, respectively. They were also earlier (2-3 weeks) in maturity than the check. The earlier released variety Pusa Ujwal for NCR, Delhi, performed best under AICRP trials and was identified by AICRP (VC) group meeting for cultivation in zone VIII.

A recently released improved variety of ash gourd Pusa Ujwal Bitter gourd

A white fruited promising selection DBTG 1 was observed under large scale yield trial. It gave 16.0 t/ha yield which was 10.0% higher than that of the check Pusa Do Mausami. The best performing F1 hybrids based on yield per plant were DBGY 201 × Priya (3.64 kg), DBGY 201 × DVBTG 5-5 (3.59 kg) and DBGY 201 × Pusa Do Mausami (3.07 kg). They showed 126.41%, 123.29% and 124.17%

heterosis, respectively over that of the standard check Pusa Do Mousami.

The segregation for gynoecism in F2 generation was observed to be in 3:1 (monoecious vs. gynoecious) ratio which indicated that gynoecious sex form in bitter gourd is controlled by a single recessive gene based on 4 F1 hybrids.

Thirty-two genotypes of bitter gourd were screened artificially for salinity stress under 5 concentrations (1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 dsm-1) of salts NaCl, Na2CO3 and K2SO4 (1:1:1). The genotypes WBBG 33, AK/VK 54, BGT 5-2, and MC84 were found moderately tolerant on the basis of different morphological traits studied. Cucumber

Selections DC 54, DC 6 and DC 92 yielded 20.3 t/ha, 19.7 t/ha and 19.3 t/ha showing an increase of 19.5%, 15.8%

and 13.5%, respectively, over that of the check Pusa Uday (17.0 t/ha). DC 6 was entered in AICRP (VC) trial.

Monoecious F1 hybrid DCH 6 and gynoecious F1 hybrid DCHG 5 gave yields of 21.8 t/ha and 20.2 t/ha, respectively, which were 28.2% and 18.8% higher than that of the check Pusa Uday, respectively. (Some novel genotypes of cucumber, viz., gynoecious lines, carotene rich cucumber, Cucumis histivus and Cucumis sativus var. Hardwickii were collected, maintained and utilized in breeding programme). Luffa

Sponge gourd Sel. DSG 43 gave a yield of 17.4 t/ha, which was 33.8% higher than that of the check Pusa Sneha.

Sel. DSG 6 and DSG 7 gave yields of 16.8 t/ha and 15.7 t/ha, respectively, which were 29.2% and 20.7% higher than that of the check Pusa Sneha, and showed highly tolerant reaction to Luffa leaf distortion mosaic virus (Gemini virus) during rainy season. DSG 43 was entered in AICRP (VC) trial, while another entry DSG 5 was promoted to AVT-II trial on the basis of its superior performance. F1 hybrids DSGH 9 and DSGH 3 gave yields of 19.2 t/ha and 18.0 t/ha, respectively, which were 47.6% and 38.4% higher than that of the check

Pusa Sneha. Ridge gourd selection DRG 2 gave a yield of 14.2 t/ha, which was 57.7 % higher than that of the check Pusa Nasdar (9.0 t/ha). A unique plant with gynoecious behaviour was isolated from a segregating population of cross between ridge gourd and satputia.

1.7.3 Solanaceous Crops Brinjal

One long fruited variety DBL 02 and one small round fruited hybrid DBHSR 66 were evaluated in AVT-I trials of AICRP (VC) and, on the basis of their performance, promoted to AVT-II trials. One long fruited hybrid DBHL 20 and two small round fruited varieties, viz., DBSR 52 and DBSR 195 were promoted from IET to AVT-I trials. Among long fruited varieties, Sel. DBL 02 gave the highest yield of 36.2 t/ha which was 28.8% higher than that of the national check Punjab Sadabahar (28.1 t/ha). In a small round fruited variety group trial, Sel. DBSR 52 yielded 31.9 t/ha and Sel. 195 (white brinjal) 30.1 t/ha which were 57.2% and 48.3%, respectively, higher than that of the national check Aruna (20.3 t/ha). In a long fruited hybrid trial, DBHL 20 (51.1 t/ha) and DBHL 150 (48.9 t/ha) were found promising with increases of 15.3%

and 10.4%, respectively, over that of the check Pusa Hybrid 5 (44.3 t/ha). In round fruited group, DBHR 38 produced a yield of 50.0 t/ha with an increase of 15.5% over that of the national check Pusa Hybrid 6 (43.3 t/ha). In small round fruited group, hybrid DBHSR 66 was most promising with a yield of 34.7 t/ha, which was 18.4% higher than that of the national check ABH 1 (29.3 t/ha).

Sixty-five genotypes and thirty-two crosses were screened against Phomopsis blight. One hybrid DBHL 137 was found resistant while another hybrid DBHL 161 was found tolerant. Thirty-five genotypes and 32 crosses were screened against shoot and fruit borer under field conditions. Three hybrids DBHL 91, DBHL 150 and DBHSR 20 were found tolerant. Tomato

Determinate tomato selection DT 2 gave a yield of 36.83 t/ha, which was 53.45% higher than that of the check CO 3 (24.0 t/ha). In a station hybrid trial, hybrid combinations DTH 5 (FEB x DT 10) and DTH 6 (3900 x Chikoo) gave a yield of 70.5 t/ha and 71.0 t/ha, respectively, which were 48.42% and 49.47% higher than that of the check Pusa Hybrid 2 (47.5 t/

ha).In TLCV resistant varietal trial, lines N 5, N 1, H 86-1, 6- 11-1, H 28-2-1, PH 348 and PH 348-4 were found resistant

against Tomato leaf curl virus. Genotypes FEB 2 and Megha were found resistant to early blight while CB 28 and Pusa 120 showed resistant reaction against root-knot nematode.

Genotypes/varieties Pusa Sadabahar, Pusa Sheetal, Booster and their hybrid combinations Pusa Sheetal x Chikoo, N 5 x Pusa Sadabahar, Pusa Sheetal x Labonita, Pusa Sheetal x Pusa Sadabahar, Pusa Sadabahar x FEB 2 and Pusa Sheetal x Booster were found promising for setting fruits at low temperature ranging between 6 oC and 8 oC. Varieties Booster, Pusa Sadabahar, Pusa Sheetel and their hybrid combinations Pusa Sadabahar x Pusa Sheetal, Pusa Sadabahar x Booster, FEB 2 x H 24, FEB 2 x 39, Chikoo x N 1 and Pusa Sadabahar x Chikoo were found promising for setting fruits at high night temperature (approx. 28 oC) during May-June. Capsicum

Capsicum hybrid KTCPH 7 was entered in the AICRP (VC) trial for its multi-location testing. Selection for fruit size, shape and number of fruits/plant was done in segregating material to develop lines with yellow, orange and red coloured fruits. Five crosses were attempted to transfer the male sterility from chilli into capsicum and paprika.

1.7.4 Root and Bulbous Crops Carrot

Two carrot varieties IPC 122 (red) and IPC 126 (black) from IARI were recommended for release by the Delhi State Seed Sub-committee.

For spring summer crop of carrot, IPC 13, IPC 30, IPC 37, IPC 55, IPC 120, IPC 122, IPC 124, IPC 128, IPC 134 and IPC 135 genotypes were found promising. For July sown crop, IPC Ht2, IPC Ht1 and IPC 124 were adjudged as most promising compared to Pusa Kesar, whereas, for August sown crop, in addition to IPC Ht2 and IPC Ht1, IPC 11 and IPC 106 also showed desirable root formation. Fifty-five elite breeding lines with diverse characteristics were evaluated and their selected roots were planted for raising bud for further testing and utilization in hybridization programme. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) was established in 25 most promising elite genetic backgrounds for evaluation in cross combinations to develop F1 hybrids.

Fifty-nine experimental hybrids of temperate carrot developed by using nine CMS (A) and ten pollinator (c) lines were evaluated along with the standard check Pusa Yamdagni.

Fifty-nine per cent hybrids surpassed Pusa Yamdagni for marketable root yield. Three high yielding hybrids, namely, KTCTH 7 (42.2 t/ha), KTCTH 8 (39.2 t/ha) and N-7 x 1060

(34.7 t/ha) exhibited economic heterosis percentage of 66.3, 55.5 and 36.5 for yield, respectively. On the basis of superior performance of KTCTH 7 in multiplicational trials at New Delhi, and Karnal, and in farmers’ fields in different districts in H.P., its release proposal was submitted to IARI Variety Release Committee.

The β-carotene content per 100 g of fresh sample was found to be the highest in the hybrid Py-10 x Kt.Sel-17 (11.265 mg) followed by PY-10 x 1060 (10.766 mg) and Kt 1 A x 1060 (9.783 mg). In the germplasm, the highest β-carotene was found in Py-10 (9.845 mg) and Kt Sel 17 (9.003 mg).

The hybrid KTCTH 7 also possessed an appreciable quantity of β-carotene (7.552 mg) in comparison to its parental lines and the check variety Pusa Yamdagni (4.010 mg). Onion

Promising selection Sel 383 with 34.3 t/ha yield showed 13.6% increase over the check Pusa Red (30.2 t/ha) under AVT-II of AICRP (VC) trial. Two selections Sel 126 and Sel 153 with 31.7 t/ha and 36.4 t/ha yields were included in IET trial of AICRP (VC). Both are yellow skinned and have good storage traits. Hybrids H 18 and H 27 (developed by using CMS system) yielded 44.9 t/ha and 44.4 t/ha. They showed increases of 6.5%, and 5.2%, respectively, over that of the hybrid H 44 (42.2 t/ha) and 9.4% and 8.1%, respectively, over that of the commercial hybrid Matahari (41.1 t/ha). Seeds of cytoplasmic male sterile line and its maintainer line with stable performance were multiplied. Dark red coloured promising selections Sel 397, Sel 383 and I 40 were found superior for quercitin and flavanoids contents.

1.7.5 Leguminous Crop Garden pea

Garden pea variety DGP 4 developed by IARI gave the highest yield of 87.73 t/ha of green pods with increases of 82.77%, 77.88% and 54.84% over that of the checks VL 3 (48.0 t/ha), VL 8 (49.32 t/ha) and NDVP 8 (56.66 t/ha), respectively. Promising genotypes/breeding lines were sown in the Fusarium sick plot for screening against Fusarium wilt resistance and suitability for earlier sowings. Of these, GP 471, GP 468, GP 447, GP 207 and GP 17 were found to possess moderate resistance against Fusarium wilt. A total of 130 cultures/genotypes were screened and evaluated for resistance to powdery mildew. Of these, 42 cultures showed field resistance, whereas 16 cultures turned out to be tolerant, the remaining ones were observed to be susceptible.

1.7.6 Malvaceous Crop Okra

Selections 1-2-3, C 316, C 317 and C 36-1 gave extra early fruiting (42 - 45 days) during kharif 2007. Selections DOV 1 and DOV 2 were found promising at most of the testing centres under AICRP(VC). One hundred and sixty-three breeding material comprising breeding lines, segregating material, elite lines, germplasm and established varieties were subjected to evaluation for YVMV resistance, productivity, plant type and fruit type along with market acceptability. Selections C 289, C 328, A 9 and one selection from Kalna (WB) had shorter plants, and short (6-8 cm), dark green and less beaked fruits were found superior with regard to export characters.