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Unit IV: State Machine: Algorithmic state machine and fundamental concept of hardware/

firmware algorithms. Controllers and data system designing. (6 L)

Unit V: FPGAs based system design: Commercial FPGA architecture, LUT and routing architecture, FPGA CAD flow; Typical case studies Xilinx’s Vertex and Spartan, Actel’s FPGA.

(9 L)

Unit VI: Faults in Digital Circuits: Controllability, and Observability, Fault models – stuck-at faults, Bridging faults, intermittent faults.

Testing of Digital circuits: Test generation algorithms for combinational logic circuits – fault table, Boolean difference, Path sensitilization, D- algorithm, Built–in-Self test, PLA test and DFT. (7 L) Suggested Books:

1. Zvi Kohavi, Switching & Finite Automata Theory, TMH., 2001

2. Samuel C. Lee, Digital Circuits and Logic Design, PHI Learning, 1980

3. Charles H. Roth, Larry L. Kinney, G. H. Raghunandan, Fundamentals of Logic Design, Cengage Learning India Pvt. Ltd, 2019

4. John V. Old Field, Richrad C. Dorf, Field Programmable Gate Arrays, Wiley, 2008

5. Michel John Sebastian Smith, Application Specific Integrated Circuits, Addison Wesley Professional, 2008

6. M. L. Bushnell and V. D. Agrawal, Essentials of Electronic Testing for Digital, Memory,and Mixed-Signal VLSI Circuits, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2005.

7. Parag K. Lala, An Introduction to Logic Circuit Testing, Morgan & Claypool publishers, 2008.

Course Outcome: Upon successful completion of this course, students should be able to:

CO1 Develop the art of digital system design.

ECx5130 Low Power Techniques in VLSI Design L-T-P: 3-0-0; Cr: 03

86 Pre-requisite: Digital Electronics and Digital IC Design

Objectives: Low power design techniques will be discussed.

Topics Covered:

Unit-I: Introduction, Sources of Power Dissipation, Static Power Dissipation, the dynamic (switching) power dissipation, short-circuit power dissipation and leakage power dissipation. Low Static/Dynamic Power Techniques, CMOS logic and Pass-Transistor Logic Families (10 L)

Unit-II: Standard Adder Cells, CMOS Adders Architectures, Parallel Adder. (8 L)

Unit-III: Types Of Multiplier Architectures, Parallel Multiplier, Braun, Booth and Wallace Tree

Multipliers and their performance comparison (10 L)

Unit-IV: Sources of power dissipation in SRAMs, Low power SRAM circuit techniques, Sources of

power dissipation in DRAMs (6 L)

Unit-V: Low power VLSI design methodology - LP Physical Design, LP Gate-Level Design, LP Architecture-Level Design, Algorithmic-Level power Reduction. (8 L)


1. J. Rabaey, “Low Power Design Essentials” Springer,2009.

2. KiatSeng Yeo and Kaushik Roy, Low- Voltage, Low-Power VLSI Subsystems, Tata McGraw Hill,2009.

3. Soudris D, Piguet C and Goutis C, Designing CMOS Circuits for Low Power, Kluwer Academic Publishers,2002

Outcomes: Upon successful completion of this course, students should be able to:

1. Understand the basics of low power design techniques for battery operated electronic devices.

2. Understand the power dissipation in MOS circuits.

3. Understand the design of low power circuits using static and pass transistor logic.

4. Design different types of adders/multiplier structures.

5. Understand the design of low power CMOS Memories.

ECx5131 Digital IC Design L-T-P: 3-0-0; Cr: 03

Prerequisite: Knowledge of Digital Circuits.

Objectives: To acquaint the students with the fundamental concepts of digital VLSI circuit design in order to optimize the digital building blocks at circuit level.

Course Contents:

Unit I: Review of MOSFET operation and CMOS process flow: RC model for interconnects, transmission lines, CMOS process flow, Layout and design rules. (4 L)

Unit II: CMOS Inverter: Static characteristics, power consumption, dynamic behavior, timing analysis, buffer design using the method of logical effort, CMOS layout. (8 L)

Unit III: Combinational Logic: Transistor sizing in static CMOS logic gates, static CMOS logic gate sizing considering method of logical effort, dynamic logic, pass-transistor logic, common mode

and other cross-coupled logic families. (6 L)

87 Unit IV: Sequential Logic: Static latches and flip-flops (FFs), dynamic latches and FFs, sense- amplifier based FFs, NORA-CMOS, Schmitt trigger, monostable and astable circuits. (8 L)

Unit V: Memories and Array Structures: MOS-ROM, SRAM/DRAM cell, memory peripheral circuits, signal to noise ratio, power dissipation, Low power memory design techniques. (8 L)

Unit VI: Timing Issues: Timing fundamentals, clock distribution, jitter, self-timed circuit design, basic building blocks of PLLs, clock synthesis and synchronization using PLLs. Logic synthesis for

pipelining. (8 L)

Reference Books:

1. Jan M. Rabaey, Anantha Chandrakasan, Borivoje Nikolic, “Digital Integrated Circuits: A Design Perspective,” Prentics Hall, 2016.

2. Sung-Mo Kang, Yusuf Liblebici, “CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits,” Tata Mc Graw Hill, 2003.

3. R. Jacob Baker, “CMOS Mixed-Signal Circuit Design,” Wiley India Pvt. Ltd., 2009.

4. Ivan Sutherland, R. Sproull and D. Harris, “Logical Effort: Designing Fast CMOS Circuits”, Morgan Kaufmann, 1999.

Course Outcome: At the end of this course, students should have depth knowledge of CMOS inverter, combinational and sequential logic circuits, memories and timing issues.

ECx5132 RF Circuit Design L-T-P: 0-0-3; Cr: 03

Pre-requisite: Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits (EC664)

Objectives: To provide knowledge of trans-receiver architectures design, and their various components.


Unit-I: Introduction to RFIC Design: Applications, Challenges, General Consideration in RF Design, Key RFIC Parameters and Specification. (5 L)

Unit-II: Transmitter and Receiver architectures: Review of modulation schemes, Receiver architectures, Transmitter architectures, Link Budget and Communication Distance. (4 L)

Unit-III: Passive and active components for CMOS RFIC: Review of MOSFET, RF transistor layout, CMOS process, Capacitors, Varactors, Resistors, Inductors, Transformers, Transmission lines

Resonance, Matching, S-parameters. (6 L)

Unit-IV: Noise and Nonlinearities: Noise and Its Spectrum, Device Noise (Current Source and Voltage Source), Noise Figure, Noise Figure of Lossy Circuits, Noise Figure of Cascaded System, MOS Device Nonlinearity, Harmonic Distortion, Gain Compression Point, Inter-Modulation, Third Order Intercept Point, Cascaded Nonlinearity, Dynamic Range. (6 L)

Unit-V: Low Noise Amplifiers: CMOS LNAs, Different Topologies, Noise Figure Calculation,

Noise canceling LNAs, Matching and Stability. (6 L)

Unit-VI: Mixers & Detectors: Specifications, Active mixers, Passive mixers, Detectors. (4 L) Unit-VII: Oscillators and Frequency synthesizers: Voltage Controlled Oscillator, Phase noise,

88 Phase Locked Loops, Integer N synthesizers, Dividers. (6 L)

Unit-VIII: Power Amplifiers: Basics and Class A, B, C, D, E, F and other configurations, Power

combining, Linearity Improvement Techniques. (5 L)

Suggested Books:

1. Thomas H. Lee, The Design of CMOS Radio-Frequency Integrated Circuits, 2nd edition, Cambridge University Press,2003

2. Behzad Razavi, RF Microelectronics, Pearson Education India,2013 3. R. Ludwig, RF Circuit Design, 2nd edition, Pearson Education India,2011

Course Outcomes: Upon successful completion of this course, students should be able to:

1. Apply the concepts and design techniques presented in this course to a wide range of applications including high-speed wireless communications.

2. Have familiarized with 50 ohm environment, RFIC Layout.

3. Understand the design bottlenecks specific to RF IC design, linearity related issues, ISI.

4. Identify noise sources; develop noise models for the devices and systems.

5. Specify noise and interference performance metrics like noise figure, IIP3 and different matching criteria.

6. Comprehend different multiple access techniques, wireless standards and various transceiver architectures.

7. Design various constituents’ blocks of RF receiver front end.

ECX5133 Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) L-T-P: 3-1-0; Cr: 03

Prerequisites: Basic skills in Electrical and Mechanical engineering.

Course objective:

 To provide an overview on the Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS)

 To familiar with the basics of materials used for the MEMS Design.

 To understand the basic principles of various sensors and actuators.

 To know the basic concepts of micro systems and miniaturization.

 To know the basic steps of fabrication for manufacturing MEMS devices.

Course Contents:

Unit I: Introduction to MEMS: MEMS and Microsystems, Definitions and classifications, Evolution of Microfabrication, Microsystems and Microelectronics, Microsystems products, Multidisciplinary Nature of Microsystems, Intrinsic characteristics of MEMS: Miniaturization, Microelectronics and Integration, and parallel fabrication with precision, Applications of MEMS in

industries, scaling laws. (10 L)

Unit II: MEMS Materials: Introduction, substrate and wafers, active substrate materials, silicon, silicon compounds, silicon piezo resistors, polymers and packaging materials. (05 L) Unit III: Design Principle: Sensors and actuators for smart systems, Classification of sensors:

smart material sensor, microsensor and nanosensor , Principle of operation : linear and rational sensor, thermal sensors, Mechanical Sensors, Electrical Sensors Chemical and Biosensors, Semiconductor-based sensor; Actuators, Principle of operation: Electrical and Thermal, Mechanical

design of actuators. (09 L)

89 Unit IV: Microsystem fabrication process: Fabrication Techniques, Crystal growth, Epitaxial Process, Oxidation, Lithography, Etching, Diffusion and Ion Implantation, Metallization. MEMS processing techniques: Lithography, Galvanik Abforming (LIGA), Lift-off, Chemical Mechanical Polishing, Surface micromachining, Bulk micromachining, Deep Reactive Ion Etching. (08 L) Unit V: Microsystem packaging: Introduction to packaging, packaging process, Need of packaging, Comparison of Micro electronics and MEMS packaging, Design case: pressure sensor

packaging. (05 L)

Unit VI: Engineering Mechanics for Microsystem: Design Introduction, Static bending of thin plates, Mechanical Vibration, Thermo mechanics, Fracture mechanics, Thin Film mechanics, Use of

FEA in MEMS structures. (05 L)

Text and reference books:

Chang Liu, “Foundation of MEMS”, Pearson Education Inc, 2012.

Tia-Ran Hsu, “MEMS & Microsystems. Design & Manufacturing”, TMH 2002

Stephen D. Senturia, “Microsystem Design”, Springer Publishers.

Vijay K. Varadan “Smart Material Systems and MEMS: Design and Development Methodologies”, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2006.

Thomas M.Adams and Richard A.Layton, “Introduction MEMS, Fabrication and Application,” Springer 2012.

Chang Liu , “Foundation of MEMS” 2nd Edition”, Pearson education, 2012.

Maluf, M., “An Introduction to Microelectromechanical Systems Engineering”. Artech House, Boston 2000.

Trimmer , W.S.N., “Micro robots and Micromechanical Systems”, Sensors & Actuators, Vol 19, 1989.

Course Outcome: On successful completion of the course, the students will be able to understand the operation of micro devices, micro systems and their application.

ECx5134 Optical Networks and Photonic Switches L-T-P: 3-0-0; Cr: 03 Prerequisite: Optical Fiber Communication, Optoelectronics, Computer Networks.

Objectives: Learning the basic concepts of Optical Networks, Network Survivability, and Photonic Switching.

Course Contents:

Unit-I: Introduction to Optical Networks : Telecommunications Network Architecture, Services, Circuit Switching, and Packet Switching, Optical Networks, The Optical Layer, Transmission Basics, Network Evolution. (4 L)

Unit-II: Optical Signal Propagations and Photonic Components: Optical windows, Optical Fiber as a Waveguide, Optical Signal Distortions, Basics of Nonlinear Effects, Solitons, Couplers, Isolators

& Circulators, Multiplexers & Filters, Switches (Large Optical Switches, Optical Switch Technologies), and Wavelength Converters (Optical Gating, Interferometric Techniques, Wave-

Mixing, etc.). (7 L)

90 Unit-III: Transmission System Engineering: System Model, Power Penalties, Optical Amplifiers (FDFA, Gain saturation and equalization in EDFAs, Power Transients & Automatic Gain Control), Crosstalk (Intra-channel and Inter-channel Crosstalk, Crosstalk in Networks, Crosstalk Reduction), Dispersion (Chromatic Dispersion Limits, Dispersion Compensation, Polarization-Mode Dispersion),

Wavelength Stabilization. (7 L)

Unit-IV: Network Layers & Architectures : SONET / SDH (Multiplexing, Layers and Frame structures, SONET/SDH Physical Layer, Infrastructure elements), Optical Transport Network, Generic Framing Procedure, Ethernet, Internet Protocol, Multi-Protocol Label Switching, (7L) Unit-V: Network Survivability : Basic Concepts, Protection in SONET/SDH, Point-to-Point Links, Self-Healing Rings, Need for Optical Layer Protection, Basics of Optical Layer Protection Schemes,

Interworking between Layers. (5 L)

Unit-VI: Wavelength Networks Elements : Network Elements (Optical-Line Terminals &

Amplifiers, Optical Add/Drop Multiplexers, OADM Architectures, Reconfigurable OADMs, Optical

Cross-connects), WDM Network Design. (6 L)

Unit-VII: Photonic Packet Switching and Access Network : Optical Time Division Multiplexing, Bit Interleaving, Packet Interleaving, Optical AND Gates, Basics of Buffering and Burst Switching, Network Architecture Overview, Fiber to the Curb (FTTC), PON Evolution. (6 L)

Text Books:

1. R. Ramaswami, Kumar N. Sivarajan, Galen H. Sasaki, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, 3rd Ed., ELSEVIER Inc, 2010.

2. C. S. R. Moorthy and M. Gurusamy, WDM Optical Networks: Concept, Design and Algorithms, Prentice Hall of India, 1st Edition, 2002.

3. Gerd Keiser, “Optical Fiber Communications”, TMH, 4th Edition, 2008.

Reference Books:

1. P.E. Green, Jr., Fiber Optic Networks, 1st Ed., Prentice Hall, NJ, 1993.

2. D. K. Mynbaev, and L. L. Scheiner, Fibre-Optics Communications Technology, 1st Edition, Pearson, 2002.

3. Biswanath Mukherjee, Optical WDM Networks, Springer Series, 2006.

4. Uyless Black, “Optical Networks – Third generation transport systems”, 1st edition, Pearson, 2002.

Course Outcome: Upon successful completion of this course, students should be able to:

CO1 Analyze the basic concepts of Optical network and switching.

CO2 Analyze the issues related with Optical Signal Propagation and optical Components

CO3 Learn the different aspects of optical transmission systems/networks, amplifiers, dispersion, crosstalk, etc.

CO4 Learn different about different optical network layers and architectures.

CO5 Understand the basic idea of Optical network Survivability and optical layer protection.

CO6 Learn about the essentials of wavelength network elements and access networks materials used for realization of various optoelectronic devices and systems.


ECx5135 Satellite Communication L-T-P: 3-0-0; Cr: 03

Pre-requisite : Digital Communication, Antenna Basics Course Objectives:

1. To understand the satellite communication system, satellite sub system and earth station.

2. To undertand the concept of satellite orbits and satellite launching

3. To design and evaluate the link design anlysis for satellite communication 4. To understand to Multiple access techniques to support satellite communication 5. To design the different application for satellite communication


Unit-I: Introduction- Origin, History, Current Technology and Overview of Satellite Communication System, Kepler‘s Laws of motion, Orbital aspects of Satellite Communications, Look Angle and Orbit determinations, Orbital effects in communication system Performance.

Unit-II: Space Craft Subsystems- AOCS, TTC&M, Power system, Satellite transponder, spacecraft Antennas

Unit-III: Satellite Link Design- System Noise temperature and G/T ratio - Design of downlink, Uplink - Design of satellite links for specified C/N, Implementation of error Detection on satellite links.

Unit-IV: Earth Station Technology-Earth Station Design, Design of Large Antennas, Tracking, Small earth station Antennas, Equipment for earth station

Unit-V: Multiple Access: FDMA, TDMA, CDMA, SSMA, Demand Assignment Multiple Access, Digital Speech Interpolation and SPADE.

Unit-VI: Satellite Packet Communications- Message transmission by FDMA: The M/G/1 Queue, Message transmission by TDMA - Pure ALOHA: Satellite packet switching - slotted ALOHA - Packet Reservation - Tree algorithm.

Unit-VII: Application of satellite-Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) Network, Direct Broadcast Satellite Systems, Global Positioning System.

Text & Reference Books:

1. “Satellite Communication”, T. Pratt, C.W. Bostian, John Willey and Sons 2. “Digital Satellite Communication”, Tri T. Ha , McGraw-Hill

3. “Satellite Communication”, Dennis Roddy, McGraw Hill.

Course Outcomes (CO):

At the end of this course, the students should be able to:

CO1: Understand the basic operational principle of satellite communication system CO2: Design and analyzethe satellite link

92 CO3: Understand the various physical layer and network layer design issues of a satellite

communication system

CO4: Demonstrate an understanding of satellite communication for various applications ECX5136 Analog VLSI Design L-T-P: 3-0-0; Cr: 03

Prerequisite: Analog Electronics

Objectives: To acquaint the students with basic CMOS analog building blocks and analog sub- system design.


Unit-I: Necessity and advantages of CMOS Analog Circuits; review of MOSFETs; their characteristics and models; components available in MOS technology: MOS capacitor. (5L)

Unit-II: Overview of MOS amplifiers and their analysis; analysis of typical MOS circuits using square law; frequency response, bandwidth enhancement; MOS bias circuits; various types of current mirrors. (Simple , Wilson, modified Wilson and cascode); differential amp: linear range; diff amp with active load biased with current source: Gm, Rout; Diff. To single ended converter; output stage

and level shifting stage. (10 L)

Unit-III: Op-amp architectures: CMOS op-amps; two stage CMOS op-amp architectures;

calculation of overall gain and rout; determination of dominants poles; compensation and relocation of poles and zeros; other CMOS op-amp architectures. Gilbert cell. (10 L) Unit-IV: CMOS OTAs and transconductors: CMOS OTA-linear range and transconductance;

linearized CMOS OTSs-single ended and differential. (2 L)

Unit-V: MOSFET-C integrated filters; MOS fully differential integrator, derivation of MOSFET-C

biquads based on conventional op-amp RC biquads. (4 L)

Unit-VI: Nonlinearity cancellation in MOS Analog Circuits: basic topologies for non-linearity cancellation using one, two and four matched MOSFETs; exemplary circuits for realising linear grounded / floating CMOS voltage- controlled oscillators. (5 L) Unit-VII: Phase locked loop 8 Frequency multiplier-Phase locked loop; Lock range limitations; type II loop; Jitter & Phase noise; Continuous time approximation; PLL transfer functions; Reference feed

through spurs; LC oscillators (5 L)


1. Behzad Razavi, Design of Analog CMOS integrated circuits, McGraw Hill Co. Inc.,2013.

2. R. Jacob Baker, CMOS: circuit Design, Layout and Simulation, Wiley,2009

3. Douglas R. Holberg, Phillip E. Allen, CMOS Analog Design, 3rd Edition, Oxford University Press,2013

Outcomes: Upon successful completion of this course, students should be able to:

1. Understand the basic operation and properties of MOSFET.

93 2. Analyze the operation of MOS amplifiers.

3. Understand the design of Operational Amplifier using MOS and their characteristics, compensation techniques and stability analysis.

4. Understand the design of Operational transconductance amplifier and their applications.

5. Design of MOSFET-C biquads, voltage controlled oscillators.

ECx5137 Electromagnetic Interference & Compatibility L-T-P: 3-0-0; Cr: 03 Pre-requisite:

Vector Calculus, Electromagnetic Field Theory Course Objectives:

The objective of this course is for the student to develop skills for analyzing and modelling non-ideal aspects of device design as they relate to EMC issues.

Course Contents:

Unit I: Introduction: Introduction to EMC and EMC Requirements for Electronic Systems; EMC