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Unit VII: Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks: Fundamentals of optical

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering National Institute of Technology, Patna.

108 coherent systems, Coherent detection principles, Modulation and demodulation schemes, SONET/

SDH architecture, SONET/SDH network elements. [4 L]


1. John M. Senior, “Optical Fiber Communications” 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall, 2009.

2. Gerd Keiser, “Optical Fiber Communications”, Fourth Edition, McGraw Hill, 2008.


1. Govind P. Agrawal, Fiber-optic communication systems, Wiley, 4th Edition, 2010.

2. P. Bhattacharya, “Semiconductor Opto-Electronic Devices”, Prentice Hall, 2006. 25

3. “Fundamentals of Fibre Optics Telecommunications and Sensor systems”, Edited by Bishnu P.

Pal, New Age International (P) Ltd, Publishers, New Delhi, 2005.

4. J. Wilson and J. Haukes, “Opto Electronics – An Introduction”, Prentice Hall, 1995.


At the end of this course, the students should be able to,

1. Understand and analyse the concepts of optical fiber/waveguide structures with mode propagation.

2. Understand and evaluate the performance of optical fiber systems based on the signal distortion/degradation in it.

3. Evaluate the performance of optical sources and optical detectors, in terms of various design parameters.

4. Understand and apply the optical amplifiers and multiplexing techniques for the optical communication systems.

5. Analyse the different advanced optical communication systems and networks along with components.

ECx5146 RF System Design for Wireless Communication

L-T-P: 3-0-0; Cr: 03


1. Electromagnetic Field Theory 2. Basic Communication Engineering

Course Objective: The objective of this course is to give exposure of RF system design for wireless communication system. The RF front end is to be introduced from a communication system point of view. Different transceiver architectures are introduced. Design and analysis of passive and active components are covered in both theory and lab.


Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering National Institute of Technology, Patna.

109 Unit-I: (Introduction): RF spectrum and usage in wireless communication and standards;

Introduction to SDR architecture and its advantages; Tx and Rx configuration for I/Q communication; General structure of transceiver; Exposure to modem integrated circuit transceiver; Introduction to Homodyne, Heterodyne, Low IF and Zero IF receiver.

(12 L)

Unit-II: (Practical Consideration of IoT Front End): Block diagram of wireless communication systems; Noise floor and Receiver sensitivity, dynamic range; Noise figure and its calculation; Link budget; Smith chart and impedance matching of antenna and LNA using lumped element; Housing effect and hosting effect in IoT. (6 L)

Unit-III: Passive circuits: Characterization of micro-strip line and micro-strip line discontinuity; Design of micro-strip line based passive components like: i) broadband imp matching, ii) power divider,

iii) directional coupler, etc.; Consideration of commonly used lowpass and bandpass filters; Coupled multistage bandpass filter; hairpin bandstop filter; Consideration of antennas used in modern applications, viz. MIMO communication, Massive MIMO, V2X communication, IoT, etc.

(14 L)

Unit-IV: Active Circuits: varactor diode and their biasing; modern reconfigurable microstrip line filter example; Specification of ADC, LNA, VCO, and mixer; Exposure to amplifier stability; Phase noise and its measurement. Different types of RF power amplifier (PA) and their efficiency; Intermodulation distortion; AM/AM and AM/PM conversion; Volterra series modeling of PA nonlinearity; ML based modeling of PA

nonlinearity. (10 L)


1. D. M. Pozzar, "RF System Design", Wiley and Sons, 2001.

2. William F. Egan, "Practical RF System Design", IEEE Press, Wiley-Interscience, 2003

3. Kai Chang, Inder Bahl, Vijay Nair, “RF and Microwave Circuit and Component Design for Wireless Systems”, John Wiley, 2001


1. Michael Steer, "MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN, vol. 1-5", NC State University, 2019 2. Awang Zaiki, “Microwave Systems Design, 4th Ed.", Springer Nature; 2014

3. JIA-SHENG HONG, “Microstrip Filters for RF/Microwave Applications, 2nd Ed.”, JOHN WILEY & SONS, 2011.


On completion of this course the students would be able to:

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering National Institute of Technology, Patna.

110 CO1: Understand the working principle of present day SDR used in most of applications including IoT.

CO2: Deal with practical aspects of a radio receiver like receiver sensitivity, dynamic range, NF, placement of LNA, matching antenna with LNA; housing effect and hosting effect.

CO3: Analyze, simulate, and design the basic passive components and work with passive components used in practice.

CO4: Understand the specification of active circuit modules. CO5: Do biasing of PIN diode and varactor diode.

CO6: Design elementary RF circuits and carry out their characterization

ECx5147 Machine Learning L-T-P: 3-0-0; Cr: 03 Pre-Requisites: Algorithms, Probability Theory:

Objective: This course deals with machine learning which has several important applications such as, multimedia document recognition (MDR) and automatic medical diagnosis are two examples.


UNIT-I: Introduction to Machine Learning, pattern recognition and basics of pixels’ relations, Types of Learning (Supervised, Unsupervised, Reinforced, Regression).

ML Techniques overview, Validation Techniques (Cross-Validations), Feature Reduction/

Dimensionality reduction, Principal components analysis (Eigen values, Eigen vectors, Orthogonality).

Performance measurement metrics: Confusion matrix, Accuracy, Precision, Recall, ROC curve, Area Under Curve (AUC), Confidence intervals.

Data partitioning (K-fold cross validation, leave one out, Leave m-out)

UNIT-II: Machine learning Clustering: Distance measures, Different clustering methods (Distance, Density, Hierarchical), Iterative distance-based clustering, dealing with continuous, categorical values in K-Means, Constructing a hierarchical cluster, Measures of quality of clustering.

UNIT-III: Machine learning Classifiers: Statistical: Bayesian theorem, Bayesian classifier: Minimum distance, Maximum likelihood), Naïve Bayes, k- nearest neighbor (K-NN), Linear Classification, Logistic Regression, Linear Discriminant Analysis, Quadratic Discriminant Analysis, Perceptron, Support Vector Machines Kernels, Artificial Neural Networks Back Propagation, Decision Trees and Case studies.

UNIT-IV: Deep learning approaches: Introduction, Architecture (such as CNN, AlexNet, GoogleNet, ResNet, VGG-16/19, Fast-RCNN, Faster R-CNN, Mask RCNN), Applications (in Denoising, Classification, object and instance segmentation and detection).

UNIT-V: Recent trends in various learning techniques of machine learning and classification methods for Computer vision and image processing applications.

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering National Institute of Technology, Patna.

111 Text Book:


Introduction to Machine Learning by Alpaydin Ethem , PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd


Machine Learning - Tom Mitchell (TM)


Pattern Classification - Duda, Hart and Stork (DHS)


Michael Nielsen, Neural Networks and Deep Learning, 2016


Introduction to Pattern recognition and Machine Learning By Christopher M. Bishop F.R.Eng References for Machine Learning:

1. Machine Learning - Tom Mitchell (TM)

2. The Elements of Statistical Learning - Hastie, Tibshirani, Friedman (HTF) 3. Yoshua Bengio, Learning Deep Architectures for AI, 2009

References for Deep Learning:

1. Ian Goodfellow, Yoshua Bengio, Aaron Courville, Deep Learning, 2016

2. S. Theodoridis and K. Koutroumbas, Pattern Recognition, 4th Ed., Academic Press, 2009.

Course Outcomes (Cos):

1. Understand the characteristics of machine learning.

2. Demonstrate the basic concept of statistical and clustering based machine learning models for different application use.

3. Develop machine independent and unsupervised learning techniques.

4. Apply and Analyze the machine learning techniques for developing real time applications.

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering National Institute of Technology, Patna.


Open Electives

(Subjects offered by ECE Dept. for the students other than ECE)

OE05101 Communication Systems L-T-P: 3-0-0; Cr:03 Prerequisite:

Elements of Electronics Engineering

Course Objective:

This course is intended to make students familiar with different types of modulation schemes and communication techniques used in communication system and networks.

Course Content:

Unit-I: Introduction to Communication Systems:

Fourier Transform and Fourier Series – Basic properties of Fourier Transform and Fourier Series, Power and Energy Signals, Block diagrams of different types of communication systems, like,

Wired, Wireless, Optical, etc. [7 L]

Unit-II: Analog Communication System I:

Amplitude Modulation System: Need for modulation, Conventional AM - Representations in time and frequency domain and their Modulation and Demodulation methods, Modulation index, Double Sideband Supressed Carrier AM - Representations in time and frequency domain and their Modulation and Demodulation methods, Single Sideband AM - Representations in time and frequency domain and their Modulation and Demodulation methods. [8 L]

Unit-III: Analog Communication System II:

Angle Modulation System: Concept of Frequency and Phase modulation, Representation of FM and PM signals, Frequency deviation and Modulation index, Carson’s Rule, Narrowband FM and its generation, Generation of Wideband FM - Armstrong method, Demodulation of FM signal.

[5 L]

Unit-IV: Discrete Time Modulation System: Sampling Theorem – Low pass and Band pass, Quantization, Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM), Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) and their generation and detection. [4 L]

Unit-V: Digital Communication System: Advantages of Digital communication over Analog communication, Pulse Code Modulation, Differential PCM, Delta Modulation, Introduction of Digital modulation schemes – ASK, FSK, PSK, etc. [7 L]

Unit-VI: Optical Communication System:

Introduction to Fiber Optics, Types of Optical Fibers - step index and graded index, multimode and single mode; Signal Distortion in Optical Fiber Communication, Introduction of Optical Sources and

Optical Detectors. [6 L]

Unit-VII: Wireless Communication System

Introduction to Wireless Communication and types of Wireless Communication, Frequencies used and Ranges, Basic Challenges and Requirements, Different Generations of Wireless Communications, Basic Propagation methods, Concept of Cellular Communications and Frequency

reuse, Handoffs. [5 L]

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering National Institute of Technology, Patna.


Text Books:

1. J. G. Prokias, and M. Salehi, ‘Fundamentals of Communication Systems’, Fifteenth Impression, Pearson Education Inc., India, 2013.

2. J. M. Senior, ‘Optical Fiber Communications: Principles and Practices’ 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Inc., India, 2013.

3. T. S. Rapport, ‘Wireless Communications: Principles and Practices’, 2nd Edition, Pearson Education Inc., India, 2011.

Reference Books:

1. B.P. Lathi, and Zhi Ding, Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems, 4th Edition, Oxford University Press, 2017.

2. G. Kennedy, and B. Davis, ‘Electronic Communication Systems’, 4th Edition, TMH Publishing Company Limited, India, 2010.

3. G. Keiser, ‘Optical Fiber Communications’, 5th Edition, McGraw Hill Education (India) Pvt.

Ltd., India, 2013.

4. H. Taub, D. L. Schilling, G. Saha, ‘Principles of Communication Systems’, 3rd Edition, TMH Publishing Company Limited, India, 2008.

Course Outcomes:

After successful completion of the course, students would be able to –

CO1: Understand the principle of Analog modulation schemes, such as Amplitude modulation, Frequency modulation, etc. along with the Analog Communication Systems.

CO2: Understand the principle of Sampling Theorem and Pulse modulation approaches.

CO3: Understand the principle of Digital Communication System and some important Digital Modulation schemes, such as ASK, PSK, QAM, etc.

CO4: Understand the different varieties of Optical Fiber, Optical Sources and Optical Detectors used in Optical Fiber Communication System.

CO5: Understand the different types of Wireless communication systems, concept of cellular system design, and Handoff strategies.

OE05102 Electronics Technology L-T-P: 3-0-0; Cr: 03

Prerequisite: Engineering Physics Course Objectives:

 To give students a comprehensive overview of electronics system in general.

 To give basic idea about different semiconductor devices COURSE CONTENTS :

UNIT I (6 L)

Introduction: Semiconductor; Discrete Components: resistor, capacitor, inductor, diode, transistor, LED, etc.; Multimeter, CRO, bread board, printed circuit board and its design; Working principle of diode, diode characteristics; Brief introduction to PNP & NPN BJT; Introduction to the concept of Integrated circuit (IC) and VLSI.


Analog Electronics: Application of diode e.g. rectifier; Application of BJT as amplifier and switch;

OpAmp and its advantages; Application of OpAmp: Inverting and non-inverting amplifier, adder, subtractor, IC741.

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering National Institute of Technology, Patna.



Digital Electronics: Logic gates; Multiplexer; De-multiplexer; Flip-Flop; Shift Register; Counter; A/D and D/A converter.


Microcontroller & Computer Architecture: Basic block diagram of a typical computer architecture;

Basic working principle of ALU and control unit; processor instruction format; Introduction to I/O operation. Example of industrial application of microcontroller.

UNIT V (7 L)

Radio Technology: Electromagnetic spectrum; Applications of radio technology in domains like wireless communication, RADAR, broadcasting, remote sensing, navigation, etc.; Block diagram of a typical wireless communication system; Block diagram of a typical radio transmitter and receiver; The need of modulation in communication system; Frequency translation; Brief introduction to analog modulation: AM, FM, PM; Advantages of digital communication over analog communication; Cellular Communication System: Introduction to the cell structure, frequency reuse, and hand off.


Consumer Electronics: Working principle of the following: DVD, DVD player, LCD TV, Plasma TV, LED TV, 3D TV, Microwave oven, GPS, and HDTV System.


Industrial Control: Introduction to Laplace Transform; Transfer function; Stable and unstable system;

Introduction to feedback control; Advantage of closed loop control over open loop control;

Introduction to sensors, transducers and actuators with practical examples; Introduction to Programmable logic controller (PLC) with example.

Text Books:

1. Electronics Explained, Lou Frenzel, Elsevier, 2010.

Reference Books:

1. Electronics Technology Handbook, Neil Sclater, McGraw Hill, 1999.

Course Outcome:

Upon completion of the course, students should possess the following knowledge and skills:

 An understanding of a machine's instruction set architecture including basic instruction fetch and execute cycles, instruction formats, control flow, and operand addressing modes.

OE05103 Micro Electro Mechanical System

(MEMS) L-T-P: 3-1-0; Cr: 03

Prerequisites: Basic skills in electrical and mechanical engineering.

Course objective:

 To provide an overview on the Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS)

 Familiarize with the basics of materials used for the MEMS Design.

 To understand the basic principles of various sensors and actuators.

 To know the basic concepts of micro systems and miniaturization.

 To know the basic steps of fabrication for manufacturing MEMS devices.

Course Contents: