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Study of OFDM transceiver, and bit error, performance study in an AWGN channel

UNIT IX: No. of Lectures: 2

5. Study of OFDM transceiver, and bit error, performance study in an AWGN channel

Course Outcomes:

Students would be able to –

CO1: Get concept of basics of communication engineering and different types of communication technologies. Use software and hardware-based experiments to demonstrate various aspects of different communication systems.

CO2: Explanation the principle and operation of Analog and Digital Communication with their relative merits/demerits and advanced applications. Understand various approaches for digital modulation and use of software and hardware-based experiments to demonstrate various aspects of different modulation schemes.

CO3: Convert analog signals to digital format using sampling and quantization techniques. Use of Software and hardware-based experiments to demonstrate sampling and reconstruction principles.

Analyze the effect of ISI and Equalization in digital communication.

CO4: Recognize the digital transmission through the noise channels and understand the concept of compression and decompression techniques to solve the problems associated with various impairments in digital communication systems. To design optimum receivers for a given signal- space structure for additive Gaussian channels and assess performance of digital communication receivers for additive Gaussian channels. Apply the knowledge to implement digital transceivers including OFDM and CDMA systems.

CO5: To get knowledge about Random Variables, Random Processes and different types of distribution functions and understanding concept of information theory & coding. Verify the concept with various software and hardware based experiments.

CO6: Recognize the necessity of life-long learning through timely exposure to the evolving and new technologies in the field of communications.

Prerequisites: Electromagnetic Theory

Objectives: Theoretical understanding of the microwave components and devices.

EC55102 Microwave Engineering L-T-P: 3-0-2; Cr: 04

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering National Institute of Technology, Patna.


Unit-I: Rectangular Waveguide and cavity: Wave propagation in rectangular waveguide: TE and TM modes and field equations. Current distribution, field distribution of different modes, power loss and attenuation, resonant cavity, Q-factor, bandwidth. (10 L)

Unit-II: Circular Waveguide and cavity: Bessel function and its solution, wave propagation in different modes: TE and TM, circular cavity and TE, TM and hybrid modes inside the circular cavity.

(5 L)

Unit-III: Microwave Components: Scattering parameters, T-junctions, power couplers and dividers,

circulator, isolator. (8 L)

Unit-IV: Microwave sources: Microwave tubes, Klystron, reflex klystron, magnetron, travelling wave tube, backward wave oscillators, quantum mechanical behavior-based devices, transferred electron

devices, transit time devices. (12 L)

Unit-V: Printed Microwave Devices: Strip line, Microstrip line, microstrip based power coupler,

power divider, filters and antennas. (7 L)

Book List:

1. Samuel Y. Lio, Microwave Devices and Circuits 4th, Person

2. D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, 4th Edition, John Willey Publisher

3. R. F. Herrington, Time –Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields, John Wiley, 2001 (reference book) 4. Ramesh Garg, Prakash Bhartia, Inder J. Bahl, A. Ittipiboon, Microstrip Antenna Design

Handbook, Artech house, 2001 (reference book)

Course Outcome: Upon successful completion of this course, students should be able to:

(i) Develop the art of microwave components.

(ii) Make students well versed with the fundamental concepts of the microwave techniques.

(iii) Understand the operation mechanism of waveguides.

(iv) Understand the implementation techniques of microwave components.

(v) Understand the microwave sources.

(vi) Understand the advanced microwave devices and their theory.

RF and Microwave Engineering Lab:

Prerequisites: i) Electromagnetic Field Theory (EC3502), ii) RF and Microwave Engg (EC7501)

Objective: The objective of this course is to introduce undergraduate students to the fundamentals of

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering National Institute of Technology, Patna.

51 RF and Microwave Engineering and to make students familiar with the microwave measurements and different microwave passive components. Students will also get familiar with antenna measurements and design.

List of Experiments:

Experiment No 01: Familiarization with Microwave Test Bench and frequency measurement using frequency meter.

Experiment No 02: Measurement of waveguide parameters

Experiment No 03: Measurement of coupling coefficient, directivity & insertion loss of a multi-hole directional coupler.

Experiment No 04: Measurement of coupling coefficient of E-Plane Tee.

Experiment No 05: Measurement of coupling coefficient of H-Plane Tee.

Experiment No 06: Measurement of coupling coefficient and isolation of Magic Tee.

Experiment No 07: Study of mode characteristics of Reflex Klystron. Plot the change in output power and operating frequency with repeller potential.

Experiment No 07: Determination of I-V characteristics of a Gunn Diode

Experiment No 08: Measurement of s-parameters of filter/antenna using Network Analyser.

Experiment No 09: Study of different TE modes of a rectangular waveguide using an electromagnetic simulator.

Experiment No 10: Study of different TM modes of a rectangular waveguide using an electromagnetic simulator.

Course Outcome: Upon successful completion of this course, students should be able to:

1. Characterize different microwave components.

2. Achieve a comprehensive understanding on Reflex Klystron and Gunn diode 3. Measure s-parameters of different microwave components using network analyzer 4. Design waveguide components using electromagnetic simulator.

EE55101 Control System L-T-P: 3-0-0; Cr: 03

Objective: To introduce the concepts of modeling, analysis and design of simple linear and non- linear dynamic systems.


UNIT-1 : Control System Concepts and Classification: Open loop, closed loop, continuous, discrete, linear and non-linear control systems. (2 L)

UNIT-2 : Mathematical Models of Systems: Impulse response and transfer function, block-

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering National Institute of Technology, Patna.


diagram model and signal flow graphs. (4 L)

UNIT-3 : Time Domain Analysis: Transient and steady state responses of first and second order systems, steady state errors, control of transient response; Basic control actions and their effects on

transient and steady state responses. (7 L)

UNIT-4 : Root Locus Technique: Root loci, properties and construction of root loci, effects of adding and moving poles and zeros, root locus of conditionally stable systems, generalized root contour.

(7 L)

Unit-5 : Frequency Domain Analysis: Routh Hurwitz criterion, Bode and Nyquist diagrams, gain magnitude and phase shift plots, frequency domain specifications, peak resonance and resonant frequency of a second order system, gain margin and phase margin, conditionally stable system.

(6 L)

Unit-6 : Compensation Design in s and Planes: Introduction, phase lead compensation, phase lag compensation; Design of phase-lead and phase-lag compensation by Bode plot and root locus methods.

(6 L)

Unit-7 : State Variable Technique: Derivation of state model of LTI continuous time systems, state equations, state transition matrix, solution of state equations. (5 L)

Unit-8 : Basic Non-linear Analysis: Linearization, describing function and phase plane methods,

stability concepts and Lyapunov functions. (5 L)

Text /Reference Books :

1. Gopal, M., “Control Systems: Principle and Design”, 2nd Ed., Tata McGraw-Hill, 2002.

2. Kuo, B.C., “Automatic Control Systems”, 8th Ed., Wiley India, 2008.

3. Ogata, K., “Modern Control Engineering”, 4th Ed., Pearson Education, 2008

4. Dorf, R.C. and Bishop, R.H., “Modern Control Systems”, 11th Ed., Prentice-Hall of India, 2007 5. Nise, N. S., “Control Systems Engineering”, 4th Ed., Wiley India, 2008

Course Outcome: Upon successful completion of this course, students should be able to:

1. Implement mathematical tools (such as signal flow graph) to analyze a complete system and to perform mathematical modelling of different Physical systems.

2. Understand and analyze feedback characteristics of linear control system to reduce the disturbance.

3. Analyze time response of first and second order control systems for different standard test signals.

4. Have a sound understanding of proportional, integral, and derivative controllers as well as lead and lag compensators, and to achieve desired stability, steady-state error, and frequency response using them.

5. Compute the stability of linear systems using the Routh array test and root locus technique and to

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering National Institute of Technology, Patna.

53 generate control design constraints using these techniques.

6. Perform frequency domain analysis of linear control systems using polar plots, bode plots, and Nyquist stability criterion.



L-T-P: 2-0-0; Cr: 02

Prerequisites: Green Technology is a new and rapidly emerging branch of chemistry. Green

Technology came into light with the goal of reducing the damage caused to the environment by man–made materials and the processes used to produce them. Green Technology could include anything from reducing waste to even disposing of waste in an appropriate manner. All chemical waste should be disposed of in the best possible manner, without causing any damage to the environment and its various life forms.

Objectives: Green Technology is an approach to the design, manufacture and use of chemical products so as to reduce or eliminate chemical hazards intentionally. The goal of Green Technology is to create better, safer, chemicals while choosing the safest, most efficient ways to synthesise them.

The main goal of Green Technology is to eliminate hazards right at the design stage. The

principles of Green Technology demonstrate how chemical production could be achieved without posing hazard to human health and environment while at the same time being efficient and



Unit-I: Introduction of Green protocol: Need, Goal and Limitation of Green Technology, Principles of Green Technology with their explanations and examples. Sustainable development, atom

economy, reduction of toxicity. (5 L)

Unit II: Waste: Production, Prevention, Problems and Source of waste, cost of Waste, Waste minimization technique, waste treatment and recycling. (5 L) Unit III: Environmental chemicals: Chemical speciation – speciation of lead, mercury, arsenic and

chromium. Structure and property-activity relationship, fate of organics in the environment – transformation reactions (hydrolysis, elimination, oxidation-reduction etc).Risk evaluation of environmental chemicals, Biochemical effects of arsenic, lead, mercury and pesticides. (6 L) Unit IV: Water and Biodegradation: Analysis of water and water quality parameters – concept of pH,

measurement of acidity, alkalinity, hardness, residual chlorine, chlorides, DO, BOD, COD, fluoride and nitrogen.

Biodegradation – biodegradation of carbohydrates, proteins, fats and oils and detergents. (5 Lectures) Unit V: Atmosphere: Structure of atmosphere, chemical and photochemical reactions in the

atmosphere. Ozone Chemistry: formation and depletion of ozone layer, oxides of nitrogen and

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering National Institute of Technology, Patna.

54 sulphur. Acid rain mechanism of formation and effects. Photochemical smog, and sulfurous smog. Greenhouse effect, global warming, greenhouse gases. (7 L)

Unit VI: Green Synthesis and Catalysis: Green oxidation and photochemical reactions, Microwave and Ultrasound assisted reactions, Synthesis of Green Reagents, Green solvents.

Classification of catalysts, heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis, bio-catalysis. (5 L) Unit VII: Green Industrial Processes: Pollution statistics from various industries, polymer industry,

textile industry, greener approach of dyeing, eco-friendly pesticides, pharmaceutical industry,

waste water treatment. (7 L)

Unit VIII: E-waste management. (2 L)


1. C.N Sawyer, P.L McCarty and G.F Parkin, Chemistry for Environmental Engineering and Science, 5th ed. Tata McGraw-Hill, 2003

2. Das, A. K. Environmental Chemistry with Green Chemistry, Books and allied (P) Ltd.

3. Ahluwalia, V.K. Green Chemistry: Environmentally Benign Reactions, Ane Books India, New Delhi, 2006.

4. Sanghi, R. and Srivastava, M.M. Green chemistry: Environment Friendly Alternatives, Narosa Publishing House.

5. Paul Anastas, John C. Warner, John Warner Joint; Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice New Ed Edition; Oxford University press, USA, 2000

Course Outcomes: Green Chemists are trained to integrate this information into design of molecules to avoid or reduce toxic properties. Green Chemists also take a life cycle approach to reduce the potential risks throughout the production process. They work to ensure that a product will pose minimal amount of threat to human health and the environment during production and moreover, its disposal and reuse and at the end of its useful life. A Green Technology approach is one of continual improvement, discovery and innovation that tends to bring us even closer to processes and products that are much safer to natural ecosystem. Ultimately a product should either be able to safely degrade as a biological nutrient or it should have better recyclability.

PRE RE QUISITE: Digital communication.


The objective of this course is to give basic concepts and advance issues relating to wireless and mobile communications and development of cellular communication infrastructure.


Unit-I: Wireless Communication Systems & Standards - Evolution of Mobile Radio


Wireless Communication

L-T-P: 3-0-2; Cr: 04

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering National Institute of Technology, Patna.

55 Communications, Cellular telephone systems, Different generations (1G to 6G) of Cellular Networks, Recent advances in mobile communication, Overview of Channel Impairments, Trunking Theory


Unit-II: RF and microwave signal propagation in wireless channel - Large scale path loss:

propagation models, reflection, diffraction, scattering, practical link budget design using path loss model. Small scale fading and multipath propagation and measurements, Impulse response model and parameters of multipath channels. Small scale Multipath Measurements, Parameters of Mobile Multipath Channels, Types of small scale fading, Time dispersive and frequency dispersive channels, delay spread and coherence bandwidth, LCR, ADF


Unit-III: Diversity: Impact of Fading and ISI on Wireless Performance, Equalization- A brief recapitulation; Outage probability; Diversity Schemes (Space, frequency, field and polarization diversities) and combining techniques, Outage probability in MRC under imperfect ISI, Capacity of

Wireless Channels, RAKE receiver; Transmit diversity – Alamouti scheme.


UNIT-IV: Basic digital modulation techniques used in wireless communications: Modulation schemes: BPSK, QPSK and variants, QAM, MSK and GMSK, multicarrier modulation, OFDM;

Performance of basic digital modulation techniques over wireless channels; Equalization: Equalizers in communication receiver and equalization techniques, linear-ZFE and adaptive, DFE, Multiple Access techniques for Wireless Communications.


UNIT-V: Cellular Communications: Introduction to Cellular Communications, Cell structure, Frequency Reuse, Channel assignment strategies, Handoff strategies, Interference and system capacity, Improving coverage and capacity in cellular systems, power control, Wireless Standards: Overview of 2G, 3G and 4G cellular standards.


UNIT-VI: Introduction to Wireless Services: GSM, CDMA, LTE, VoLTE, WLAN, Wi-Max, WPAN etc. Emerging Wireless trends: Visible light communication, Optical-wireless communication, mm-wave communication, molecular communication etc. [6L]


1. Andrea Goldsmith, ‘Wireless Communications’, 1st Edition, Cambridge University Press, 2005.

2. T. S. Rappaport, ‘Wireless Digital Communications: Principles and Practice’, 2nd Ed., Prentice Hall India, 2007.

3. David Tse and Pramod Viswanath, ‘Fundamentals of Wireless Communication’, 1st Ed., Cambridge University Press, 2005.

4. Thomas L. Marzetta, Erik G. Larsson, Yang Hong, and Hien Quoc Ngo, “Fundamentals of Massive MIMO”, Cambridge University Press, 2016.


1. K. Feher, Wireless Digital Communications: Modulation and Spread Spectrum Applications. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1995.

2. J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications, 4th ed. NY: McGraw Hill, 2000.

Laboratory Experiments:

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering National Institute of Technology, Patna.

56 1. Introduction to Wireless Front-End: Hardware components (LNA, Filters, VCO …), and system analysis along with some measurements; Understanding the impact of RF impairments on the system.

2. To plot radiation pattern of an omnidirectional antenna and a directional antenna.

3. To study the phenomena of polarization of vertical, horizontal and circularly polarized Antennas

4. Hardware based experiment on assessment of path loss coefficient in indoor environment.

5. Hardware experiment on hands-off of cellular communication system

6. SDR/MATLAB based implementation of a digital wireless communication system with different modulation formats (QPSK, QAM, 64-QAM)

7. Experiment and Simulation of various fading channels and Analyse their SNR vs. BER performance in MATLAB/SDR platform.

8. Experiment on various diversity techniques like selection combining, equal gain combining and MRC in MATLAB and their BER analysis in fading environment. Show the capacity

improvement as well.

9. Implement linear adaptive equalization for a digital wireless communication system and analyse the BER performance.

10. Performance analysis of space-time coding (Alamouti Coding for 2X1 and 2X2 MIMO) over fading channel in MATLAB.

11. Experiment on MIMO-OFDM systems over fading channel in MATLAB and analyse its capacity.

12. Experiment with wide band real time signals related to different communication standards like WLAN and LTE in MATLA/b/LabVIEW.


At successful completion of this course the students will be able to

CO1: Understand the system level aspects of cellular network design and planning with a special focus on GSM, WCDMA, UMTS, 4G and 5G standards

CO2:Illustrate the cellular fundamentals and estimate the coverage and capacity of cellular systems CO3: Understand the basic aspects of wireless propagation models and analyse their performance like link budget, coverage, BER etc

CO4: Classify and compare various diversity and combining techniques

CO5: Understand and implement advanced technologies like OFDM, 4G – LTE, MIMO etc and CO6: Software and hardware based experiments and performance evaluation of various wireless technologies.

Pre- requisite: Basic device electronics, MOSFET properties, and logic circuits.

Objectives: This course is intended to impart in-depth knowledge about analog and digital CMOS circuits. The focus is on CMOS circuits. Issues to be covered include deep submicron design, clocking, power dissipation, CAD tools and algorithms, simulation, verification, testing, and design methodology.

This course also dealt with design analysis techniques for the static and dynamic evaluation of CMOS circuits and memory elements including flip-flops, SRAM, and DRAM.

EC65102 VLSI Design L-T-P: 3-0-2; Cr: 04

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering National Institute of Technology, Patna.