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3.6.1 Determination of the sample: criteria, levels and size Sampling criteria

Starting from the overall research aim, decisions were taken as to the criteria to be applied to the sample. This meant that the sample participants were to be from a certain population, which fitted specific criteria in order to allow inference from the data obtained back to the research question (Bryman 2012). This priori determination of the sample (Flick 2014) allowed for clear guidance as to the rationale for those participants selected and provided justification as to why some potential participants were rejected. From the research aim the sample criteria was formulated to include

‘UK media organisations’ and participants who had an understanding of ‘brand management practices’ within those organisations. Sampling levels

The sampling criteria led to two different levels of sampling; sampling of the context and sampling of participants (Bryman 2012).

The researcher firstly considered the context of UK media organisations. As has already been discussed (see section 1.3) defining the media industry is difficult as it is both dynamic and complex, with changes occurring to its boundaries and

parameters as technological and consumer changes challenge the industry structure and form. However, even though there is no absolute agreement as to the sectors which make up the media industry, there is agreement that the sectors are varied yet complementary in terms of their core focus on content. To concur with Aris & Burghin (2009) and Kung (2017) the media industry is comprised of a number of sectors and

93 the researcher took the view that as the UK media industry was reflective of thi s varied composition of sectors then the selection of participants should also be from multiple sectors. This conceptualisation of the UK media industry as being made up of a number of sectors helped inform the sample of participants. Therefore, including participants from some of the largest sectors in the UK media industry- Broadcasting, TV production, Advertising and Marketing - was deemed an appropriate approach.

Taking a multi-sector perspective intentionally avoids focusing on only one sector, which can be deemed a too narrow view to understand the dynamic and complex UK media industry (Rohn 2018) and allows for insights to be derived which can resonate across the UK media industry (Doyle 2015).

The sample of participants was selected based on their practical experience in branding within the UK media industry, with the aim that this group would be able to answer questions in relation to the research objectives. A purposive snowballing procedure was used to ensure that “certain types of individuals or persons displaying certain attributes’’ (Berg 2007, p.51) were included within the study. This allowed a selection of certain participants that fitted the required criteria of having experience of and/or responsibility of brand management practices within UK media organisations.

The intention being that in applying such a selection technique to the sample, a rich and textured insight into brand management practices could be derived. Job titles such as Chief Marketing Officer (CMO), Owner, Managing Director (MD), Marketing Director, Senior Marketing manager, Senior Branding manager, Research Director, Senior Production manager, were sort, with the intention that this level of role would mean participants had the relevant experience and knowledge. Sample size

94 There is no absolute agreed conclusion, or any clear rules for deciding the number of participants for qualitative research (Patton 2002). While Cresswell (1998)

recommended five to twenty-five interviews for a phenomenological study, Kuzel (1992) suggested six to eight interviews. Patton (1990) discussed that there is no set number for a sample size for an interpretive qualitative research, as the sample size needs to be relevant depending on the purpose of the research, its usefulness for the research findings and the sources available. Hedges (1985) meanwhile stated that that “between four and six in-depth interviews constituted a reasonable minimum for a serious project” (p.76), and Crossley 2009 identified that sometimes only a single participant could provide relevant insight when it is analysed in depth.

A total of 20 individuals were included within the sample. This aligns with the recommended sample size required to support the proposed research question (Gough and Conner 2006), enabling sufficient data to be collected without it being too large a volume which becomes unmanageable (Onwuegbuzie and Leech 2005).

3.6.2 Purposive snowballing

The researcher, with a background in the UK media industry, facilitated a purposive snowballing sampling method by making direct contact with suitable potential

participants and also by asking for referrals. This was done by contacting known individuals by email (See appendix 6 for copy of email sent to known contacts), asking them about themselves and then asking for their help with the research. This led to six participants agreeing to participate.

For the remaining candidates, the purposive snowballing technique led to a number of additional contacts being made who fitted the criteria of participants required. This led to a number of introductions to suitable people in the UK media industry and a

95 further fourteen participants were secured (See appendix 7 for copy of email sent following introduction by colleague or friend).

3.6.3 Participants

Table 2 includes the full list of participants who took part in the research

Position Organisation Sector

Marketing Director Sky Broadcasting

Head of Film ITV Broadcasting

Chief Marketing Officer (CMO)

Global Entertainment group Broadcasting

Senior Content Maker Disney Broadcasting

Product Marketing Executive

Global Entertainment group Broadcasting

Senior Product Manager BBCiplayer Broadcasting

General Manager PBS America Broadcasting

Head of Research Channel 4 Broadcasting

Head of Production 4Music TV Production

Senior Production Manager

BBC3 TV Production

Development Executive Red Arrow Studies International

TV Production

Executive Director Bulbshare Advertising and Marketing Founder and MD The Latimer Group Advertising and Marketing Strategy Director Walker Agency Advertising and Marketing

96 MD and Head of


Generation Media Advertising and Marketing

Senior Strategist RAPP Advertising and Marketing

Senior Account Planner Mindshare Advertising and Marketing

CEO Bright Blue Day Advertising and Marketing

Chief Strategy Officer VCCP media Advertising and Marketing Chief Integration Officer VCCP media Advertising and Marketing

Table 2: Participant list detailing the position of the individual who was interviewed for the research, the UK media organisation they were employed at and the sector which the organisation was in