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2.1 Product Service System (PSS)

2.1.6 PSS Research in the Indian Context

methodology applied in evaluating PSS studies were questionnaire, survey and multi-criteria decision-making methods.

Zine et al. (2014) addressed the customization and personalization for a machine tool with the PSS business model perspective. They proposed a framework on these two issues based upon a hybrid PSS model and co-creation activities. In their proposed framework for machine tools, PSS design comprises of business model and engagement model. Besides, the authors argue that the framework benefits customers, providers and other stakeholders. Benefits for customers are offerings in terms of flexibility and options to customize service requirements (Zine et al., 2014). Whilst benefits for provider and other stakeholders are in terms of knowledge co-creation, based upon customer loyalty and experience.

In contrast with a traditional business model for a car, an alternative business model was suggested that relies on the concept of eco-leasing (Anand et al., 2019). The concept of eco- leasing has emerged from eco-innovation, which is a process to develop products, services and processes. It benefits to customers, organizations and reduces environmental impacts.

However, the proposed business model is limited to the conceptual stage in their study.

Sharma and Garg (2010) addressed the after-sale services of the automotive service centre in the Indian context. The automotive sector involves several stakeholders, variants and models, infrastructure, after-sales services and customer demand (Sharma & Garg, 2010). The purpose of their study was to identify interrelationships and critical success factors associated with automotive service centres. The critical success factors were identified through Interpretive Structural Modelling and MICMAC analysis. The authors emphasize enhancing the performance of automotive service centre. Authors argue that the use of technology and employee training are the enablers to improve the performances of automotive service centres and meet customers’ needs.

Datta and Roy (2010) addressed the operational strategies for performance-based contracts in the manufacturing sectors for procuring service equipment. As a result, based upon two case studies, the elements that aid in understanding the operations strategy are organizational readiness, performance assessments and contract definitions, which delivers performance- based service contracts (Datta & Roy, 2011). However, for effective service delivery process, which includes service networks and relationships of stakeholders, is missing in their study. A conceptual framework of the PSS design process was proposed for machine tools—moreover, PSS implementation issues concerning the Indian machine tool business context (Zine et al., 2016b). Banerjee and Punekar (2020) developed a process for designing agricultural machinery. In addition, services related to agricultural machinery are based upon sustainability-

orienting design approaches. The process includes five stages viz. strategic product analysis, exploration of opportunities, designing system concepts, and product and system design (Banerjee & Punekar, 2020). However, the proposed process design is qualitative. In addition, the process visualization is complex, time-consuming and requires multi-domain knowledge.

Gupta et al. (2015) utilized a multi-objective genetic algorithm to address the selection of product, service or combination of both. In their study, they proposed a methodology, which is comprised of three equations (Gupta et al., 2015). These equations help maximize profit and social impact functions and minimize environmental functions. To demonstrate the proposed methodology, car manufacturing in the Indian context was considered. However, the proposed mathematical solution has some assumptions and it is in a conceptual stage.

The fuzzy analytic hierarchy process is one among the multi-criteria decision-making methods.

It is a systematic process and comprises of set theory and hierarchical structure. Sharma and Kumar (2016) utilized this approach to rank and prioritize quality proportions of products and services with a case example of public transportation. Data were collected from the two stakeholders (public transport providers and equipment suppliers). As a result, the proportions or dimensions of product quality are reliability, durability, features and performance (Sharma

& Kumar, 2016). Similarly, the proportion or dimensions of service quality are reliability, assurance and performance. However, process of identification of these product and service quality dimensions is missing in their study.

The majority of the articles reflected the manufacturing and automotive sectors for PSS research in the Indian context. The methodologies for PSS business models were based upon literature review, co-creation theory and comparative analysis. Whereas for PSS design, several approaches and methods were used. Such as Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) tool, case study approach, exploratory survey, interviews and Lifecycle assessment approach.

Subsequently, articles covering PSS requirements and evaluation are less and methodologies used were multi-objective genetic algorithm and Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process, respectively. Table 2.8 shows the summary of PSS articles reviewed in the Indian context.

Table 2.8: List of PSS articles reviewed in the Indian context Authors

and date

Case example Methods/Tools/Approaches Remarks Sharma and

Garg (2010)

Automotive service centers

Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) tool

Stakeholders mapping is missing Datta and

Roy (2011)

Manufacturing sector

Literature review and case study approach

Service networks and defining stakeholders’ relationships is missing

Zine et al.


Machine tools Co-creation theory (involvement of customers and other stakeholders in the design aspects)

Cultural differences and influence may affect or change the

stakeholders’ re uirements Zine et al.


Machine tools Exploratory survey and interviews The proposed framework is in the conceptual stage

Gupta et al.



manufacturing sector

Multi-objective genetic algorithm Mathematical solution based upon assumptions. Quantitative studies are needed to validate the proposed equations

M. G.

Sharma and Kumar (2016)

Public Transport sector

Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process How to identify product and service quality dimensions are missing

Anand et al.


Car eco- leasing

Literature review and comparisons between traditional and suggested business model

The study provides only a conceptual stage

Banerjee and Punekar (2020)

Agricultural machinery

Lifecycle assessment approach and satisfaction-based approach

The study is qualitative, the process visualization is complex, time-consuming and requires multi-domain knowledge

In the Indian context, the studies related to PSS are minimal. There are no comprehensive academic PSS studies conducted and reported in an Indian context. In addition, there is a lack of PSS research examples related to business-to-consumers markets in India.