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Microsystem packaging: Introduction to packaging, packaging process, Need of packaging, Comparison of Micro electronics and MEMS packaging, Design case: pressure sensor packaging

(05 L)

Unit VI: Engineering Mechanics for Microsystem: Design Introduction, Static bending of thin plates, Mechanical Vibration, Thermo mechanics, Fracture mechanics, Thin Film mechanics, Use of

FEA in MEMS structures. (05 L)

Text and reference books:

Chang Liu, “Foundation of MEMS”, Pearson Education Inc, 2012.

Tia-Ran Hsu, “MEMS & Microsystems. Design & Manufacturing”, TMH 2002

Stephen D. Senturia, “Microsystem Design”, Springer Publishers.

Vijay K. Varadan “Smart Material Systems and MEMS: Design and Development Methodologies”, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2006.

Thomas M.Adams and Richard A.Layton, “Introduction MEMS, Fabrication and Application,”

Springer 2012.

Chang Liu , “Foundation of MEMS” 2nd Edition”, Pearson education, 2012.

Maluf, M., “An Introduction to Microelectromechanical Systems Engineering”. Artech House, Boston 2000.

Trimmer , W.S.N., “Micro robots and Micromechanical Systems”, Sensors & Actuators, Vol 19, 1989.

Course Outcome: On successful completion of the course, the students will be able to understand the operation of micro devices, micro systems and their application.

ECx5134 Optical Networks and Photonic Switches L-T-P: 3-0-0; Cr: 03 Prerequisite: Optical Fiber Communication, Optoelectronics, Computer Networks.

Objectives: Learning the basic concepts of Optical Networks, Network Survivability, and Photonic Switching.

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering National Institute of Technology, Patna.

94 Course Contents:

Unit-I: Introduction to Optical Networks : Telecommunications Network Architecture, Services, Circuit Switching, and Packet Switching, Optical Networks, The Optical Layer, Transmission Basics, Network Evolution. (4 L)

Unit-II: Optical Signal Propagations and Photonic Components: Optical windows, Optical Fiber as a Waveguide, Optical Signal Distortions, Basics of Nonlinear Effects, Solitons, Couplers, Isolators &

Circulators, Multiplexers & Filters, Switches (Large Optical Switches, Optical Switch Technologies), and Wavelength Converters (Optical Gating, Interferometric Techniques, Wave-Mixing, etc.).

(7 L)

Unit-III: Transmission System Engineering: System Model, Power Penalties, Optical Amplifiers (FDFA, Gain saturation and equalization in EDFAs, Power Transients & Automatic Gain Control), Crosstalk (Intra-channel and Inter-channel Crosstalk, Crosstalk in Networks, Crosstalk Reduction), Dispersion (Chromatic Dispersion Limits, Dispersion Compensation, Polarization-Mode Dispersion),

Wavelength Stabilization. (7 L)

Unit-IV: Network Layers & Architectures : SONET / SDH (Multiplexing, Layers and Frame structures, SONET/SDH Physical Layer, Infrastructure elements), Optical Transport Network, Generic Framing Procedure, Ethernet, Internet Protocol, Multi-Protocol Label Switching, (7L)

Unit-V: Network Survivability : Basic Concepts, Protection in SONET/SDH, Point-to-Point Links, Self-Healing Rings, Need for Optical Layer Protection, Basics of Optical Layer Protection Schemes,

Interworking between Layers. (5 L)

Unit-VI: Wavelength Networks Elements : Network Elements (Optical-Line Terminals &

Amplifiers, Optical Add/Drop Multiplexers, OADM Architectures, Reconfigurable OADMs, Optical

Cross-connects), WDM Network Design. (6 L)

Unit-VII: Photonic Packet Switching and Access Network : Optical Time Division Multiplexing, Bit Interleaving, Packet Interleaving, Optical AND Gates, Basics of Buffering and Burst Switching, Network Architecture Overview, Fiber to the Curb (FTTC), PON Evolution. (6 L)

Text Books:

1. R. Ramaswami, Kumar N. Sivarajan, Galen H. Sasaki, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, 3rd Ed., ELSEVIER Inc, 2010.

2. C. S. R. Moorthy and M. Gurusamy, WDM Optical Networks: Concept, Design and Algorithms, Prentice Hall of India, 1st Edition, 2002.

3. Gerd Keiser, “Optical Fiber Communications”, TMH, 4th Edition, 2008.

Reference Books:

1. P.E. Green, Jr., Fiber Optic Networks, 1st Ed., Prentice Hall, NJ, 1993.

2. D. K. Mynbaev, and L. L. Scheiner, Fibre-Optics Communications Technology, 1st Edition, Pearson, 2002.

3. Biswanath Mukherjee, Optical WDM Networks, Springer Series, 2006.

4. Uyless Black, “Optical Networks – Third generation transport systems”, 1st edition, Pearson, 2002.

Course Outcome: Upon successful completion of this course, students should be able to:

CO1 Analyze the basic concepts of Optical network and switching.

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering National Institute of Technology, Patna.

95 CO2 Analyze the issues related with Optical Signal Propagation and optical Components

CO3 Learn the different aspects of optical transmission systems/networks, amplifiers, dispersion, crosstalk, etc.

CO4 Learn different about different optical network layers and architectures.

CO5 Understand the basic idea of Optical network Survivability and optical layer protection.

CO6 Learn about the essentials of wavelength network elements and access networks materials used for realization of various optoelectronic devices and systems.

ECx5135 Satellite Communication L-T-P: 3-0-0; Cr: 03

Pre-requisite : Digital Communication, Antenna Basics Course Objectives:

1. To understand the satellite communication system, satellite sub system and earth station.

2. To undertand the concept of satellite orbits and satellite launching

3. To design and evaluate the link design anlysis for satellite communication 4. To understand to Multiple access techniques to support satellite communication 5. To design the different application for satellite communication


Unit-I: Introduction- Origin, History, Current Technology and Overview of Satellite Communication System, Kepler‘s Laws of motion, Orbital aspects of Satellite Communications, Look Angle and Orbit determinations, Orbital effects in communication system Performance.

Unit-II: Space Craft Subsystems- AOCS, TTC&M, Power system, Satellite transponder, spacecraft Antennas

Unit-III: Satellite Link Design- System Noise temperature and G/T ratio - Design of downlink, Uplink - Design of satellite links for specified C/N, Implementation of error Detection on satellite links.

Unit-IV: Earth Station Technology-Earth Station Design, Design of Large Antennas, Tracking, Small earth station Antennas, Equipment for earth station

Unit-V: Multiple Access: FDMA, TDMA, CDMA, SSMA, Demand Assignment Multiple Access, Digital Speech Interpolation and SPADE.

Unit-VI: Satellite Packet Communications- Message transmission by FDMA: The M/G/1 Queue, Message transmission by TDMA - Pure ALOHA: Satellite packet switching - slotted ALOHA - Packet Reservation - Tree algorithm.

Unit-VII: Application of satellite-Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) Network, Direct Broadcast Satellite Systems, Global Positioning System.

Text & Reference Books:

1. “Satellite Communication”, T. Pratt, C.W. Bostian, John Willey and Sons 2. “Digital Satellite Communication”, Tri T. Ha , McGraw-Hill

3. “Satellite Communication”, Dennis Roddy, McGraw Hill.

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering National Institute of Technology, Patna.

96 Course Outcomes (CO):

At the end of this course, the students should be able to:

CO1: Understand the basic operational principle of satellite communication system CO2: Design and analyzethe satellite link

CO3: Understand the various physical layer and network layer design issues of a satellite communication system

CO4: Demonstrate an understanding of satellite communication for various applications ECX5136 Analog VLSI Design L-T-P: 3-0-0; Cr: 03

Prerequisite: Analog Electronics

Objectives: To acquaint the students with basic CMOS analog building blocks and analog sub-system design.


Unit-I: Necessity and advantages of CMOS Analog Circuits; review of MOSFETs; their characteristics and models; components available in MOS technology: MOS capacitor. (5L)

Unit-II: Overview of MOS amplifiers and their analysis; analysis of typical MOS circuits using square law; frequency response, bandwidth enhancement; MOS bias circuits; various types of current mirrors.

(Simple , Wilson, modified Wilson and cascode); differential amp: linear range; diff amp with active load biased with current source: Gm, Rout; Diff. To single ended converter; output stage and level

shifting stage. (10 L)

Unit-III: Op-amp architectures: CMOS op-amps; two stage CMOS op-amp architectures; calculation of overall gain and rout; determination of dominants poles; compensation and relocation of poles and zeros; other CMOS op-amp architectures. Gilbert cell. (10 L)

Unit-IV: CMOS OTAs and transconductors: CMOS OTA-linear range and transconductance;

linearized CMOS OTSs-single ended and differential. (2 L)

Unit-V: MOSFET-C integrated filters; MOS fully differential integrator, derivation of MOSFET-C

biquads based on conventional op-amp RC biquads. (4 L)

Unit-VI: Nonlinearity cancellation in MOS Analog Circuits: basic topologies for non-linearity cancellation using one, two and four matched MOSFETs; exemplary circuits for realising linear grounded / floating CMOS voltage- controlled oscillators. (5 L)

Unit-VII: Phase locked loop 8 Frequency multiplier-Phase locked loop; Lock range limitations; type II loop; Jitter & Phase noise; Continuous time approximation; PLL transfer functions; Reference feed

through spurs; LC oscillators (5 L)


1. Behzad Razavi, Design of Analog CMOS integrated circuits, McGraw Hill Co. Inc.,2013.

2. R. Jacob Baker, CMOS: circuit Design, Layout and Simulation, Wiley,2009

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering National Institute of Technology, Patna.

97 3. Douglas R. Holberg, Phillip E. Allen, CMOS Analog Design, 3rd Edition, Oxford University


Outcomes: Upon successful completion of this course, students should be able to:

1. Understand the basic operation and properties of MOSFET.

2. Analyze the operation of MOS amplifiers.

3. Understand the design of Operational Amplifier using MOS and their characteristics, compensation techniques and stability analysis.

4. Understand the design of Operational transconductance amplifier and their applications.

5. Design of MOSFET-C biquads, voltage controlled oscillators.

ECx5137 Electromagnetic Interference & Compatibility L-T-P: 3-0-0; Cr: 03 Pre-requisite:

Vector Calculus, Electromagnetic Field Theory Course Objectives:

The objective of this course is for the student to develop skills for analyzing and modelling non-ideal aspects of device design as they relate to EMC issues.

Course Contents:

Unit I: Introduction: Introduction to EMC and EMC Requirements for Electronic Systems; EMC