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1.7.6 Malvaceous Crop Okra

Selections 1-2-3, C 316, C 317 and C 36-1 gave extra early fruiting (42 - 45 days) during kharif 2007. Selections DOV 1 and DOV 2 were found promising at most of the testing centres under AICRP(VC). One hundred and sixty-three breeding material comprising breeding lines, segregating material, elite lines, germplasm and established varieties were subjected to evaluation for YVMV resistance, productivity, plant type and fruit type along with market acceptability. Selections C 289, C 328, A 9 and one selection from Kalna (WB) had shorter plants, and short (6-8 cm), dark green and less beaked fruits were found superior with regard to export characters.

H 3-4 180.26 2.50 17.5 0.21 7,359

H 3-6 180.90 2.78 18.3 0.18 3,058

H 4-12 229.50 - 18.4 0.23 12,351

H 6-1 220.50 3.00 17.3 0.18 8,919

H 13-2 110.15 2.04 19.4 0.18 7,519

H 13-5 310.80 3.49 19.5 0.13 9,006

H 13-8 240.50 3.50 18.5 0.15 8,355

H 13-7 175.65 3.66 19.6 0.24 11,002

H 1-6 (Amrapali × Sensation)

H 2-6 (Amrapali × Lal Sundari) Hybridization during March, 2007

Nine new crosses were made using Amrapali, Mallika, H 2-6 and IIHR 10 as female parent and Sensation, Lal Sundari and Pusa Arunima as male parent. Characterization of polyembryonic mango genotypes

Sixteen polyembryonic mango genotypes were characterized by using plant vigour as index at nursery stage.

Vigour index-I revealed that varieties, namely, Bappakai, Combodiana, Chandrakaran and Carabao have strong tendency of more vigour as compared to that of other

Vigour indices of different polyembryonic mango genotypes Genotype Vigour index-I(cm) Vigour index-II(g)

Bappakai 7067 547

Carabao 4455 451

Cecil 3631 212

Chandrakaran 4960 495

Combodiana 5073 500

Kerala-1 4119 353

Kerala-3 3376 153

Kerala-5 3555 196

Kurukkan 4849 256

Muvandan 3759 338

Mylepelian 4872 332

Olour 4076 330

Peach 1956 137

Sabre 4604 487

Turpentine 4727 493

Vellaikolamban 2212 153

C.D. at 5% 574 35

varieties. However, Peach and Vellaikolamban showed lower vigour. The highest vigour index-II was recorded in Bappakai while the least was recorded in Peach followed by Vellaikolamban.

Polyembryony in Turpentine

1.8.2 Grape

Nineteen grape cultivars were evaluated for yield performance on Head and Kniffen system of training. Out of

these, Tas-A-ganesh and Centenial seedless performed well again on Head and Kniffen system of training under yield trials.

Fifty-seven new grape hybrids were assessed and evaluated on different parameters for desirable characteristics.

Selection 2005-6-17 and Selection 2006-12-1 exhibited earliness in ripening and produced good quality seedless berries. However, promising grape hybrids, viz., Banquei

Promising grape hybrids in pipeline

Hybrids Ripening Average no. of bunches/vine Average Average TSS (%) Remarks

time Head Bower bunch berry

system system weight (g) weight(g)

Banquei 2nd week 20.00 46.00 550.00 2.00 17.00 Yellowish

Abyad x of June seedless

Perlette berries

75-32 suitable for

table purpose

Hur x 1st week 24.00 - 700.00 6.00 22.00 Yellowish

Cardinal-76-1 of June bold berry,

seeded, suitable for table and munakka- purposes Potential grape hybrid selections

Hybrid Ripening Average no. Average Average TSS (%) Remarks time of bunches/ bunch berry

vine weight (g) weight (g)

Selection 2005-5-1 Uniform 4th 14.00 500.00 1.60 18.00 Yellowish green

week of May seedless

Selection 2005-6-17 -do- 15.00 400.00 1.80 20.00 Greenish yellow seedless Selection 2006-11-8 -do- 18.00 450.00 1.90 20.00 Yellowish green

seedless Selection 2006-12-1 -do- 9.00 400.00 1.80 18.00 Yellowish green


Abyad x Perlette 75-32 and Hur x Cardinal 76-1 were found to perform consistently well on Head and Bower systems of training this year too.

1.8.3 Citrus Performance of grapefruit

Four cultivars of grapefruit, viz., Imperial, Foster, Walter and Triumph were evaluated for yield and quality attributes. Imperial produced the heaviest fruits (457.42 g each) and the highest yield (115.70 kg/tree), and yielded the highest amount of juice (47.63%). However, the lowest yield (50.80 kg/tree) was observed in Triumph and the least

amount of juice was recovered in Walter. The highest TSS (10.96%) was recorded in Triumph followed by Walter and Foster.

1.8.4 Aonla

Cultivars Krishna, Chakaiya, Kanchan and NA 7 of aonla were evaluated for their suitability under Delhi conditions. The average fruit weight was recorded highest in cv Krishna (42.4 g) followed by NA 7 (36.5 g) while the minimum was recorded in Kanchan (31.2 g). Red peeled accession produced smaller fruits weighing 18.9 g on an average.

The highest yield (68 kg/tree) was recorded in NA 7 followed by Kanchan (59 kg/tree). The highest seed weight was recorded in Krishna (2.20 g) followed by NA 7 (2.10 g).

The maximum TSS (11%) and acidity (1.77%) were observed in Krishna while the maximum ascorbic acids (498.3 mg/ 100 g pulp) were recorded in NA 7.

1.8.5 Bael

The cultivars, namely, NB 4, NB 5, NB 7 and NB 9 of bael were evaluated under Delhi conditions for their performance. The maximum number of fruits per tree (74 fruits/tree) was recorded in Narendra Bael 5 (NB 5) closely followed by NB 9 (65 fruits/tree). The maximum yield was realized with cultivar NB 5(64.5 kg/tree) followed by NB 9 (60.8 kg/tree). The highest average weight of fruit was recorded in NB 7 (1380 g) followed by NB 9 (935 g). Skull weight was also found to be maximum in NB 7, while the

Physico-chemical attributes of grapefruit cultivars

Cultivar Yield Fruit Fruit Fruit Juice Peel TSS (kg/tree) weight length diameter (%) thickness (%)

(g/fruit) (cm) (cm) (mm)

Imperial 115.70 457.42 8.08 10.22 47.63 0.44 9.98 Foster 95.30 361.86 8.64 9.68 43.30 0.37 10.16 Walter 97.20 380.12 8.18 9.43 39.40 0.55 10.84 Triumph 50.80 324.24 8.32 8.26 40.10 0.48 10.96

minimum was in NB 4. Physico-chemical parameters, namely, TSS, and ascorbic acid were higher in NB 5.

1.8.6 Pomegranate

Fifty-six cultivars of pomegranate were maintained in field. Performance of nine cultivars was evaluated under Delhi conditions for growth, flowering and fruit characteristics.

Cultivar G 137 performed best in respect of growth and fruiting behaviour (yield 1.64 t/acre) followed by Jyoti (1.6 t/

acre) and Ganesh (1.4 t/acre). Cultivar G 137 and Jyoti produced fruits of better aril colour, high juice and TSS content and low acidity followed by Ganesh. G 137, Jyoti and Ganesh were more susceptible to fruit cracking while other cultivars showed some tolerance to fruit cracking.

1.8.7 Temperate Fruits Apple

The horticultural traits of 27 Malus species and their response to biotic factors, viz., woolly aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum), powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) were assessed. The horticultural traits evaluated were the propagation potential, vigour and chilling hour requirement. M. baccata (Shillong) and M. purpuria exhibited resistance to woolly aphid and powdery mildew. Resistance to apple scab was located in M.

baccata (Shillong) and M. prunifolia var. Ringo Asami.

Two apple hybrids were selected for release as apple cultivars, viz., Pusa Amartara Pride (Red coloured) and Pusa Gold. Pusa Amartara Pride is early ripening (one week earlier), large in size, with high juice content and TSS values. Pusa Gold is very early ripening (three weeks earlier than the early ripening T.E.W.), bright golden with a bright red blush without stripes, and round and uniform in shape with TSS values in between those of the parents.

A high density apple plantation experiment is in progress with planting densities of 3402, 1736, 1111, 625 and 277 trees per hectare and Spur-Type-Red-Delicious as the test variety. The rootstock used was M. baccata (Shillong). Leaf nitrogen content and vegetative growth were maximum in the case of 1111 trees/

ha. The average yields over a three year period of 12 - 14 year old plantation ranged from13.5 kg/tree to 26.64 kg/tree. This was equivalent to 45.93 t/ha for a planting density of 3402 trees/

ha to 7.38 t/ha for the minimum planting density of 277 trees/ha. Apricot

Eight cultivars of apricot fruited during the period under report. The cultivar Shakkarpara exhibited fruits with the

highest fruit weight (88.20 g), largest fruits (78.48 cm3) and the highest pulp:stone ratio(17.64) followed by the cultivar Kaisha Kinnaur with pulp: stone ratio of 16.40. Kiwifruit

An easy and low cost technique for large scale multiplication of kiwifruit plants was developed. The technique was successfully evaluated by monitoring the performance of the propagation beds established by twenty orchardists. The overall rooting success obtained in different cultivars of kiwifruit varied from 55% in Toumri (male) to 80% in the cultivars Abbott and Bruno. Hayward, which is a good large fruited cultivar, exhibited 70%

rooting. Packing of rooting hormone concentrate was standardized and made available to the growers on no- profit-no-loss basis. Pear

Spraying of 2 ppm IBA at full bloom stage increases fruit setting in Bartlett pear. One of the Pyrus species, Py.

pashia var. Kumaonii was found to be resistant to Dematophora necatrix. Strawberry

The collection of strawberry cultivars was augmented to ninety-seven. These cultivars were evaluated for their various horticultural traits and incidence of leaf spot disease. Walnut

A unique walnut clone, now christened as Pusa Khor, was collected in 2000. The clone has been regularly fruiting since 2002 and is being evaluated in comparison with seven other clones which had been collected along with the unique clone.

The rate of photosynthesis and transpiration was significantly higher in the unique clone compared to that in the other seven clones. A scrutiny of the bearing habit revealed that Pusa Khor bore 69.91% fruits laterally and 30.09% fruits terminally, while all the other three clones were borne terminally. The nut is thin shelled. Kernel colour is light cream yellow and good in taste. In organoleptic tests, its astringency was rated significantly lower than that of market samples. The oil per cent and shelling per cent were 55 and 50, respectively.