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Biochemical & Pharmacological evaluation of liver oils of selected deep sea sharks and chimaeras of the Indian EEZ


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Thesis submitted to the

Cochin University of Science and Technology

in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN BIOCHEMISTRY


MATHEN MATHEW (Reg. No. 3289) I 1 \ . I‘ __ - 0 .\ ' 1-_ \ / T ._ ' _' ‘ ‘L - '\\. .. \\

Biochemistry & Nutrition Division ;'§}" l. T-7 .‘~" ’/-I//' \\. =_ ’_’__~?“.’/ ' 1.-\ , Pi;

Central Institute of Fisheries Technolog\yf» ,,(\+;;/’

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Cochin-682029, India

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Department of Chemical Oceanography School of Marine Sciences

Cochin University of Science and Technology

Cochin-682 016, India

April 2010



I, Mathen Mathew (Reg.No.3289, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin-16) hereby declare that the thesis entitled

"BiochemicaI & Pharmacological evaluation of liver oils of selected deep sea sharks and chimaeras of the Indian EEZ’ is based on the original research work carried out by me under the guidance and supervision of Dr. Suseela Mathew, Senior Scientist, Biochemistry & Nutrition Division, Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Cochin-29 and no part of this work has previously formed the basis for

award of any degree, associate-ship, fellowship or any other similar title or

Cochin-29 Mathen Mathew W

15.04.2010 Ph.D.Reg.No.3289, CUSAT

recognition of this or in any other institution or university.


- 2666645, 2666646, 2666647, 2666646, 2666145 www.cift.res.in Telephone} 2666763, 2666764, 2666765, 2666766 Fax ; 0091-464-2666212

2666576. 2666577, 2666576, 2666579, 2666560 E-mail 1 enk_ciftaris@sancharnet.in


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15"‘ April, 2010


This is to certify that the thesis entitled “Biochemical & Pharmacological evaluation of liver oils of selected deep sea sharks and chimaeras of the

Indian EEZ' embodies the original work carried out by Shri. Mathen Mathew, Full time Ph.D. student (Reg.No.3289, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Cochin University of

Science and Technology, Cochin-16) under my guidance in the Biochemistry &

Nutrition Division, Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Cochin-29, in partial

fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in

Biochemistry. I further certify that no part of this thesis has previously been formed

the basis of award of any degree, diploma, associate-ship, fellowship or any other


Dr.Suseela Mathew Senior Scientist & Research Guide,

Biochemistry & Nutrition similar titles of this or in any other university or institution.


To you, Mom 61 ®az[

for afftfie [01/e and’ support

you /iave given me...



I exalt and bow down before the Maker of my being for the abundant blessings bestowed upon me during the course of my thesis work. Glory indeed to God for helping me complete my doctoral studies in time. l thank Him for giving me an opportunity to work with such eminent scientists, laboratory personnel and budding research scholars of the Biochemistry

& Nutrition division, Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Cochin.

l am indeed, indebted to my guide and mentor, l)r.Suseela Mathew, for the timely interventions and valuable suggestions rendered at various stages of this work. Madam, your enthusiasm, constructive thoughts and ideas have always motivated me to explore and experiment. Yours words of encouragement and wisdom have enlightened me and will remain in me, in the years to come. Thank you madam for being there always.

l am grateful to Dr.K.Devadasan, former Director, CIFT and to D1'.B.Meenakumari, Director, CIFT, for facilitating me with the necessary infrastructure required for the successful completion of this work. The financial assistance rendered by the Ministry of Earth Sciences in connection with the project on ‘resource assessment of demersal fishery resources along the continental slope area of the Indian EEZ’ is gratefully acknowledged.

l express my sincere thanks to Dr.P.G.V.Nair, former HOD and Dr.P.T.l,axman, Principal Scientist & l-IOD, Biochemistr_v & Nutrition Division, Cll-‘T, for their gracious presence, support and guidance during the days of my work.

My heartfelt gratitude to all former HODs, scientists and staff of CIFT for their unbeatable presence and for inculcating within me a spirit of discovery and investigation.

Their knowledge on the subject, suggestions and ideas, proved indeed indispensable for my work. A special word of thanks to Dr.Ashok Kumar for being my morale booster, for helping me with the HPLC-ELSD study and for the discussions following thereafter.

l extend my sincere thanks to all other research scholars of CIFT for their full­

fledged co-operation and keen interest shown towards the progress of my work. Thanks to Dr.Shobana, CMFRI, Cochin and to Dr. Rakesh, CIFT. Cochin for helping me with the histopathological evaluation.

I am indeed grateful to Dr.Chandramohana Kutnar (HOD, Chemical Oceanography, CUSAT) and scientists from Cll-‘T Dr.T.V.Sankar, Dr.R.Anandan, Ms.Asha K.K., Dr.Geetha Lakshmi, Dr.S.Gopal, Dr.Leela Edwin, Dr.Saly Thomas for rendering valuable service and effort towards the completion of this work. Their availability for the discussions made me complete this work with the fullest satisfaction.

Thanks in a very special way to Mr.B.Ganesan, for helping me with the animal studies and to Dr.Usharani, Mrs.Remani, Mrs.Jaya, Ms.Lekha, Ms.Tessy, Mr.K.V.lVlathai, Mr.'l‘.Mathai, Mr.Raghu, Mr.Shivan, Mr.Srcedharan and Mr. Gopalakrishnan for providing me with all the basic needs right from stationery to chemical reagents. glasswares etc.

It would be injustice on my part ifl didnit thank well enough the library staff 0|

CIFT namely Mrs.Silaja and Mr.Bhaskaran, who helped me with the collection oi references for the study.

l.ast, but by no means the least, l would like to thank all my family members, friends and colleagues for the love and encouragement shown towards me during this stud_v.

Mathcn Matlicw





Chapter .1. The illarine Fislwry Resources oftltc Indian Exclusive Economic Zone

With a seacoast of 8,118 km, an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of 2 million square km, and with an area of about 30,000 square km under aquaculture, India produces close to six million tonnes of fish, over 4 per cent of the world fish production. While the marine waters upto 50m depth have been fully exploited, those beyond, remain unexplored. There is an ever increasing demand for fishery resources as food. The coastal fishery resources of the country are dwindling at a rapid pace and it becomes highly imperative that we search for alternate fishery resources for food. The option we have is to hunt for marine fishery resources. Studies pertaining to proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid composition are essential to understand the nutraeeutical values of these deep sea fishery resources.

For over two decades, accepted dietary guidance has stressed the importance of choosing a diet that is low in fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids play a major role in the regulation of blood pressure, clotting and in reducing blood cholesterol.

Fresh water fish generally have lower levels of omega-3 PUFAs than marine fish. lt is essential to understand the biochemical compositions of deep sea creatures belonging to the Indian EEZ to identify potential resources that could serve as food supplements in the fisheries industry.

The main objectives of the study were to carry out proximate composition of deep sea fishery resources obtained during cruises onboard the FORV Sagar Sampada, to identify fishery resources which have appreciable lipid content and thereby analyse the bioactive potentials of marine lipids, to study the amino acid profile of these fishery resources. to understand the contents of SPA, MUFA and PUFA and to calculate the 113/n6 fatty acid contents.

Deep sea fishery resources were obtained as a result of trawling (llSl)'l‘, EXPO) operations on the FORV Sugar Stmzpazlu during cruises 24l, 250, 252. The catch was sorted onboard and the samples were frozen immediately at -20°C, in the fish-hold. These were then brought to the laboratory l'or further studies. Proximate composition oi‘ six tliiTct'c1tt marine species were carried out following the Association of the Official r\nal_vtical Chemists (AOAC, i934) methods. The amino acid composition was determined using


HPl.C- l..C l0 AS) equipped with cation exchange column packed with a strongly acidic cation exchange resin whereas the fatty acid composition, with a Gas Chromatograph clubbed with a Flame Ionisation detector. The extent of unsaturation in the lipids was determined by determining their corresponding Iodine values; the phospholipid contents were also analysed.

The main results of the study were as follows. Over 20 different marine fishery resources, obtained from the south west & south east coasts of the India as well as the Andaman Seas, were analysed for their biochemical compositions ranging from the elasmobranchs liclzinorhinus brucus, Ne0hm'rz'rorra mleighana to other demersal creatures like

/llz'p0cephalu.s blrmfordii, B(:th_t-*rr0(.~(e.s .s'quum0.s'u.s', Lamprogrcmmms niger. ./Veopinnula 0rz'entali.s', Hoplostet/ms meditermneus, Ari.s'teu3 alcockii, Bar/:__vurocrmger bmuc.'1'i, $1-'r"i<);2.s':'5' cyzmea, Luciobrotula corethr0m_vcler. (.’helt'd0pc'rcrz int-'e.stigur0ri.s', Lophionrus .s'erz'geru.s', Bembrops caudimaculala, PIe2j_vgrm'ig1a Uemi.s'ri<:(: and Xen0m_t=sm.r trricirlens. Out of these six species were studied for their amino acid and fatty acid contents based on their catch frequency and high lipid contents. Significantly (p<0.05) high amounts of histidinc, tyrosine, lcucine and proline were observed in the tissues of 1\’.ralez'gl:m~za. The deep sea shrimp Aalcockii was found to possess significantly high amounts of arginine and glutamic acid. The snake mackeral P.c__vanea contained significantly high amounts of threonine and leucine while significantly high amounts of the essential amino acid methionione were observed in the muscle tissues of the slick head B..squarno.s'n.s'. Liver of E.bru<:u.s' and N.raIeighana contained 70% lipids which possessed a high fraction of the non-saponifiable matter (78%) and unsaturated fatty acids. Palmitic and myristic acids were the dominant saturated fatty acids in most of the deep sea fishery resources analysed. Significantly high amounts of oleic acid was observed in the oils of P.c_i-*unea, B._s~qz:c:niosu_s' and .4.al<.-or"/(ii.

Among the PUFAs analysed, n-3 PUFA (EPA, DHA) formed the dominant class of fatty acids in Ebrucus and N.raleighnna liver oils. Moreover the n-3:n-6 fatty acid ratio was significantly high in P.q-unea and B.squam0su.s.

Though the presence of nutraeeuticals was identified in the marine fishery resources analysed in the study, their use as potential food resources deserve further investigation.


Chapter 2. Biochemical Analyses of liver ails of selected sharks & chimaeras of the Indian EEZ

The annual average landings of sharks, skates and rays during 1996-2006 were 60,866 t of which sharks constituted 60.1% (36,592 t) (CMFRI statistics, 1996-2006). Though a harvest potential ot' l,85,000 t ofelasmobranchs has been indicated for the Indian EEZ, they are not fully exploited. Sharks are of great commercial importance the world over, apart from being a significant link in the marine ecology. Sixty-five species of shark have been sighted in lndian waters and over 20 of these, of the Carcharhinidae and Sphymidae families, contribute to the fishery. Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Kerala Karnataka and Andra Pradesh supply around 85% of the shark landings in India. Despite the commercial importance, no serious attempts have so far been made at any targeted exploration of this valuable resource.

The main objectives of the study were to calculate the hepatosamatic indiees of sharks & chimaeras and conduct biochemical characterisation of liver oils of /tprz'.s*tzirt.r.s indicus. Centrophorus scalprams Canti-0.s'e1a<trliu.s r.-repz'duter, i'\-"calmrriotm ruleig/imza and Hmriotta pinnura obtained during cruises onboard the FORV Sugar Srrmpudrz.

The major results of the study were as follows. The liver weights were found to be approximately l/5'“ ofthe total body weights of the selected elasmobranchs. The livers of all the species contained high lipid fractions ranging from 69% in the ,~’\-"'eo/nu-rimtm sp. to 79%

in the Cenzrophorus sp. The liver oils of Centrophorus .s'<i.-alprmus. Cent:'osc!ac/ius crepirlaler, Neolzurriottrz raleighcma and Hcu'ri0rtu pi/mum contained high non-saponitiable matter compared that of Apri.srm't-rs sp. Squalene was the predominant hydrocarbon present in the liver oils of the Neoharriotm and the (_“c'nn'0p/torus species at approximately 60% of their liver lipids while they constituted only 18% of the total lipid contents in the Ap!'t.s'!1u'r1.\' sp. Triacylglycerols composition ranged from 2-4% of total lipids in liver of the selected elasmobranchs. Significantly high amounts of monoacylglycerols (7% total lipid) were observed in the livers of the Ne<>lzc"u'ri'<>rtu sp. Vitamin E at 2% lipid levels of liver were observed in both the 1\/eohurrirma sp. and the C('I1U'r)p/!()I'Hs' sp. Traces of Vitamin A were also recorded in the selected species. However the lipids ot“ .‘i[7I't.\'!l!I'l!.\' sp recorded high levels of saponitiable matter (68% total lipids) compared to the others. The total free fatty acids and polar lipids were found to be at less than 1% levels in all the species evaluated.

High levels of mono-unsaturated fatty acids were observetl in the liver oils of all the species studied ranging from 52% in the .-\-’t'olmrriromz sp. to 69% in the ( '<*ntr0;>/mrm" sp.


of the total saponifiable matter of the lipids. The results of the present study indicated that the biochemical evaluation of liver oils of deep sea sharks and chimaeras provides insight into the various lipid bioactives contained within them, that would serve as potential natural remedies for the treatment ofvarious human disordersfdiseases.

Chapter 3. Shark liver oils as an algesic, anti-inflanunarmy, antipyretic and anti-ulcer agents.

Therapeutic use of shark liver oil is evident from its use for centuries as a remedy to heal wounds and fight flu (Neil er al. 2006). Japanese seamen called it st":/m></awn, or "cure all".

Shark liver oil is being promoted worldwide as a dietary supplement to boost the immune system, fight infections, to treat cancer and to lessen the side effects of conventional cancer treatment. These days more emphasis is laid on the nutritive benefits of shark liver oils especially on the omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ( PUFAs) (Anandan er al. 2007) and alkylglycerols (AKGs) (Pugliese er al. I998) contained in them due to the high rise of inflammatory disorders such as arthritis, asthma and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzl1eimer’s, Parkinson’s and Schizophrenia.

Higher concentrations of AKGs in shark liver oils are now considered to be responsible for their high immune boosting ability (Pugliese et al. I998). These AKGS are essentially a class of lipids with an ether linkage and a glycerol backbone. In addition, shark liver oils also contain, antioxidant vitamins and squalainine (Brunel et al. 2005), a substance which has shown a promising behavior towards fighting cancers of the breast, lung, brain, and skin (melanoma specifically) by choking off the tumor's blood supply. The pharmaceutical values associated with shark liver oils are abundant; they fonn the active ingredients of many different formulations ranging from vitamin supplements to skin based ointments and creams (Neil et al. 2006).

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the phannacological properties w.r.t analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti pyretic and anti-ulcer effects of four dillerent liver oils of sharks belonging to the Indian I~II~l7. and to icleritify the components of oil responsible for these activities. The analgesic and anti—intlammatory activities of liver oils from

Nev/mrriotra raleig/mna (NR), Cent:'0s_wmiu.s' crrepirlrrler (CC), ,4pri'.s'nu'u.s' i'ndicu.s' (AI) and Cenlrop/zorus sen/pr(mr.s' (CS) sharks caught from the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean were compared. As the information available with regard to these properties is relatively scanty, an attempt has been made to explore their ability as therapeutic agents.


mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids would have played a major role in lowering the incidence of inflammatory diseases by blocking the activity of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Al oil recorded the lowest fraction of NSM (25%) and hence exhibited lower effects.

\ \


‘ .

Chapter 4. The hypocholestemlemic_fi.s‘h oil

The lndian subcontinent is home to 20% of the world’s population and may be one of the regions with the highest burden of cardiovascular diseases (C VD) in the world. Most CVD cases arise due to lifestyle. unhealthy eating habits. smoking etc. and are more common in men. ln I990. there were an estimated l.l7 million deaths from CVD in India. and the number is expected to almost double by the end of 2010. Studies have indicated that South Asians have elevated levels of I..Dl- cholesterol and triglycerides, while also suffering from a deficiency in HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol.

which helps clear fatty buildups from blood vessels). In addition. South Asians are more vulnerable and are at greater risk of developing heart disease.

The main objectives of the study were to determine the cholesterol lowering effects of liver oils of Ne0l:arr:'0tI'a raleighuna (NR) and Ccim'0p/i0ru.s- .r<..'u/prarus (CS) on the high fat dict induced dyslipidemia and to compare the impact of four isolipidemie diets, on levels of serum diagnostic marker enzymes, on lipid profile of blood and liver and antioxidant status of heart. in male Albino rats.

All animals were fed a basal diet enriched with either: coconut oil (group CO). NR oil (group NR), CS oil (group CS) or poly-unsaturated fatty acids concentrate (group PUFA) for a period of 8 weeks. The composition of the basal diet was as follows: corn starch (60.6%). casein (18.3%). salt mixture (4%), vitamin mixture (l%). cellulose (5%). cholesterol (1%) and methionine (0.1%). Five days after acclimatization. the rats were divided into four groups of 6 animals each and were allowed free access to the experimental diets and water. The first group ofanimals (Group CO) was fed. in addition to the basal diet, coconut oil at l(.)‘.’/it feed levels. The remaining groups were also fed with the basal diets and fish oil (Group NR and CS) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (Group PUFA) at 5%, 5% and 1% feed levels respectively and made isolipidemic with coconut oil. At the end of the experimental period the animals were fasted overnight_. thereafter, ether anesthetized and blood samples collected. They were then sacrificed: liver and heart tissues were excised.

homogenates prepared and subjected to further analyses.

The main results of the study were as follows. Rats on and PL’-l-’A diets had better feed conversion ratios than those on NR and (.'() diets from the 6"‘ week of feeding. Significant (p~"='-0.05) decrease in protein content observecl between rats on ('0 and NR and than those on CS and PUF/\

diets in liver and heart tissues. A significant increase (l"-=-().l)5) in the levels of cholesterol.


triglyceride & free fatty acids in CO and NR rats compared to those on CS and PUF/\ diets. was observed in the blood sera and heart tissues of the corresponding animals. Phospholipids were significantly higher in the (P<0.05) PUFA and CS rats than in the CO rats. Significant (p<I0.05) increase in low density lipoprotein levels and a corresponding decrease in high density lipoprotein levels in the blood sera of CO and NR rats compared to those on CS and PUF/\ diets was recorded.

The elevated cholesterol level observed in the liver tissues of CO and NR rats might be due to the increased uptake of LDL-cholesterol from the blood by the hepatic membranes. Significant differences in the levels of diagnostic marker enzymes (DME) of AST. /\l.T and LDH were observed in CO fed rats compared to those on NR. CS or PUFA diets. Rats fed on high energy CO diets would have increased oxidative stress in vivo. thereby increased the DME levels. Significantly higher amount of lipid peroxides were observed in Group PU l-" A which may be attributed to the high extent of unsaturation in n-3 PUl~'A. Natural antioxidants (vitamin F. and squlalene) in the CC and NR diets would have been responsible for the low level of peroxides in the rat liver. Administration of CS and PUFA diets had a significant increase (P<IO.O5) in the levels of glutathione dependent antioxidant enzymes. glutathione peroxidise ((‘lPx) and glutathione-S-transterase (GST) and antiperoxidative enzymes. eatalase (CA"l‘) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). in the heart tissues ot the animals. But no significant differences were observed in the vitamin E and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents between CO and PUFA fed rats. CS supplementation significantly elevated (P~'Il0.05) the vitamin li and GSl~l contents. In the present study n(>:n3 ratio in CO animals was 6.9:] as compared to 0.7:l_.O.(>:l and 0.4:] in NR. CS and PUl"A animals respectively. This implied that .\lR_.

CS and PUFA diets provide balanced amounts of no and n3 fatty acids compared to CO diets.

Moreover, significant (P<i0.()5) and positive correlations were observed between saturated fatty acid and triglyeeride/cholesterol and between lipid peroxides and n3 PU FA whereas the correlations were found to be significant (P4-0.05) and negative between n3 PUFA and trigIyceride/cholesterol- lipid peroxides and vitamin F and between phospholipids and cholesterol, when subjected to Pearsonis correlation tests.

The results of the present study indicated that consuming a coconut oil diet with a panial replacement by liver oil of (.'e’HH‘()])/l())'l(S sp. lowered the LDL or bad cholesterol and lipid peroxide contents and improved the antioxidant defense status in the blood. liver and heart tissues of .»\lbino rats. However the diets with liver oils of .'\~'cu/im1"i'!ur!<.i sp. significantly raised the cholesterol levels


ss \

in blood: screening of fish oils for hypoeholesteroleinic elleets is essential. The reduced levels ol diagnostic marker enzymes. triglyeerides_. LDL cholesterol. lipid peroxides and enhanced levels ol phospholipids. HDL cholesterol. antioxidants such as vitamin l_-' and GSH. in the blood serum and heart tissues of albino rats upon consumption of CS diets could be attributed to the presence of anti­

intlanimatory l.(.‘-PL.Il-',=\s and vitamin E in the lish oils. Further. the protective effects of tish oil on the risk of (.T\-’l) may be due to the synerizistie effects of the nutrients in fish and not solely to the\-/


presence of LC-PUFAs. To summarize. fish oils may be effective dietary supplements in the management of various diseases in which oxidant/antioxidant defense mechanisms are dccelerated.

Chapter 5. Eflect qf Centrophorus scalpratus liver oil against C FA -induced arthritis in Albino rats

Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the joints, a potential debilitating inflammatory disorder that affects more than 7 million people in lndia every year. The most suitable remedy for the treatment of arthritis is to rely on the use of noti­

steroidal anti inflammatory drugs (l\lSAlDs). But most NSAIDs available today have their negative side effects as they block the activity of the enzytne eyelooxygenase l (COX l) which otherwise produces metabolites required for the normal homeostasis. Natural drugs! nutraceuticals which can selectively inhibit the activity ofCOX Il during inflammation are the need ofthe hour. Clinical trials on rheumatoid arthritis patients who relied on flsh oil as a supplement of their diet have shown decreased joint tenderness, joint pain. swelling and morning stiffness (Kremer at al.. 1990).

The objectives of the present study were to study the eflicacy of ('01itmphm'u.s' scalprulus (CS) liver oil against (Totnplete l-'reund’s Adiuvant-induced arthritis and to compare the anti-inflammatory activity ofthis oil with a traditionally used anti-inflammatory substance gingerol (oleoresin extracted from ginger.)

Thirty wistar strain male Albino rats were divided into 5 groups of 6 animals each and were fed with standard t'at feed throughout the experiment (36 days). Group l served as normal control, groups ll. Ill & IV were induced with arthritis using CF/\ (0.01 ml suspension in paraffin oi|-­

10mg/ml heat killed .-l’l_i-'cobat.-It-rriimi tubemulosue injected into right hind paw). the animals were allowed to develop maximum inflammation (as recorded by monitoring the paw size) till the l4“' day and from the l5"' day onwards. groups lll and l\’ animals were treated with the CS liver oil and gingerol respectively, Group V served as the control group for the tish oil administered — no inflammation induced but treated with the (‘enri~'op/tr»-u..s' oil from the 15"‘ day.

The major results of the study were as follows. Significant lowering (p<I0.05) of paw sizefedema and a significant increase in bodyweights for lll and IV animals were noted from the l5th day ofthe experiment. Significant (p<i().O5) increase in liver weight ofGroup ll animals was also observed. The faster multiplication of acute phase proteins during inflammation might be the probable reason for increase in liver inass noticed in group ll animals. The results of bone histopathology indicated periarticular inflatnmation with edema and infiltration ofpolymorphonuclear neutrophils and lymphocytic cells. synovitis and synovial hyperplasia as well as a severe loss of cartilage and bone in ll animals wliereas administration of oil reduced leukocyte infiltration. inflammation.

hyperplastie synovitis. erosion of articular cartilage and ostcolysis and stabilized lesions in lll and IV animals.


The presence of inflammation was confirmed with the significantly (p<0.05) elevated levels of marker enzymes of cyclooxygenase (COX), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and nitric oxide (NO) levels.

COX levels were significantly high in paw tissue homogenates of ll, lll and [V animals; however there was a significant inhibition of COX ll (70%) activity in lll and lV treated animals, thus highlighting the anti-inflammatory properties of the (‘S oil and gingerol extracts. Corresponding and significant decline (p<0.05) in MPO and NO levels were observed in lll and lV animals compared to ll animals.

A significant rise in blood and liver proteins was observed in animals during CF/\ induced inflammation. The decline in protein levels in lll and lV to near normal levels upon treatment with CS oil and gingerol showed the membrane stabilizing and tissue regenerative capacity of CS and gingerol. The significant increase (p<I().05) in positive acute phase proteins observed during inflammation was evident from the increase in protein bands as seen in their SDS-PAGE results.

This was further confirmed with the increase in Asp. Thr, Pro, Ala, Val. lle-. Leu. Phe. l..ys and Arg observed in inflammation induced untreated Group ll. The increase in sulphur-containing amino acids Cys and Met in ll might be interpreted as a sign of an enhanced glutathione (GSI l) catabolism during inflammation. There was a signilicattt decline (p<-'I().()5) in diagnostic marker enzymes AST­

ALT and LDH and a corresponding decrease in end products of protein metabolism creatinine and urea was observed in inflammation treated Groups lll & IV compared to ll. There was a significant rise in the levels of hexosc, hexosamine and sialic acid in both blood and liver ol‘ arthritic rats. The significant (p<i0.05) elevations observed in ll animals might be due to the enhanced synthesis and release of these glycoprotein components from liver to systemic circulation.

The impact of Cl-‘A-induced arthritis on carbohydrate metabolism in blood was studied.

Significant (p<1'0.O5) drop was observed in the blood glucose level in ll animals. Inhibited activities of glucose-(i-phosphatase and fructose-l.(i-biphosphatase during gluconeogenesis would have resulted in the reduced blood glucose levels. The activities ol‘ glycolytic enzymes hexokinase and aldolasc were high in inflammatory conditions as evident from the observed low levels of glucose in the blood. Since inflammatory cells exhibit higher catabolistn of glucose for energy a significant (p<0.05) drop in the activity of the glycolytic enzytnes in lll and lV Indicated the ability oi‘ the samples to limit the supply of ATP to inflamed cells through glyeolysis. 'l'he elevated activites ol‘

glycolytic enzymes and the decreased activites of gluconeogenic enzymes in inflammation indicated faster utilisation of glucose from the hepatic glycogen storage. This was evident from the significant drop (p<0.05) in glycogen levels in inflamed liver tissues.

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CFA—induced arthritis increased oxidative stress within the body as recorded by the high levels of lysosomal enzymes I3-glucosidase. B-glueoronidase. B-galactosidase. acid proleinase and alkaline phosphatase in liver tissues ot‘ the respective animals. The membrane stabilizing properties of n3 P|.5FA.sqttaletie 8: iilltyl-oxy-glyccrols contained in oil and tlavaiioids in gingerol would have


rendered beneficial effects in controlling the spread of inflammation in lll and IV animals respectively. There was a significant reduction (p<0.05) in activity of /\TPases in Il animals compared to the other groups, which might have been due to the disruption of membrane structure during inflammation. A significant (p<0.05) rise was observed in the level of calcium in the plasma and liver tissues of CPA-administered Group ll rats compared with Group l control animals. ('.'F1\

=<X tr: Q1-!

administration would have induced lipolysis and production of reactive o species that destabilized the hapatic membrane. resulting in the inactivation of ;\'a'. K'-ATPase and the depletion of plasma potassium and rise in sodium concentration.

Inflammation impairs the normal homeostasis process leading to alterations in plasma lipid and lipoprotein pattems. lnereased mobilization of LDL cholesterol from the blood into the hepatic membranes might have resulted in abnormal deposition of cholesterol in the liver of ll animals. The impact of oral supplementation of CS oil and gingerol extracts to animals under inflammatory conditions markedly reversed the plasma (p<.().05) and hepatic levels (p<i0.05) of cholesterol &

triglycerides to normal condition in group lll & IV rats. The ability of n-3 PUFA in CS oil to enhance the activity of lipoprotein lipase may facilitate the utili7.ation ol triglycerides and thus lower the triglyceride level in lll animals.

The impact ot‘(‘FA-induced arthritis on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses in the liver tissues were studied. High concentration ol' lipid peroxides and reduced rate of restoration of GSH by lower Glutathione reductase activity might be responsible for the lower level of GSH observed in hepatic tissue of group ll rats (p<0.05) compared to group l rats. Added to this.

excessive utilization of antioxidant vitamins for quenching elevated levels of free radicals produced by CFA and lack of efficient antioxidant system in the inflammed tissue to restore vitamin levels back into normalcy. resulted in decrease in antioxidant vitamin (T and vitamin F. levels in ll. The significant decrease in the activities of glutathione S transferase (p~-10.05). glutathione peroxidase (p<IO.05) and glutatliione reduetase (pr-10.05) in group ll compared to group l rats might be due to the high demand for the antioxidants to detoxify the electrophiles produced by CF/\. Diet supplemented with fish oil and gingerol concentrate significantly (p<i0.05) increased the level of superoxide dismutase (p<0.05) and catalase (pr-I-0.05) in groups Ill & [V rats compared to group ll rats. Higher activity ol‘ both the enzymes is thought to be responsiveness ol‘ body-"s defense mechanism to deleterious radicals produced excessively upon exposure to inflammatory agents.

The results ofthe present study indicated that both (1'):imp/rm-us st-ulpru/us liver oils as well as gingcrol extracts proved to be effective natural remedies against CF/\-induced arthritis in Albino rats.




No. U if 3 K

Chapter1 The Marine Fishery Resources of the Indian Exclusive 1 Title Page _ _ F _ _ -Q. .1 A-Q ¢


I Economic Zone

1 >l


I» Introduction _ F *~~~' . ~--@-- —i»~— '.


1 2.1


Review of literature K The deep sea m q

l\)l\J 1.2.2

Ecological and lifehistory patterns *2




Bank and seamount aggregating species m



Slopeand open seafloor-associated species 1



I Fishing crafts and gear H __m_ Dz if



Production highlights andtremnds d m my


1.2.7 Fish species EEZ of neighbouring countries 1.2.8


Status of exploited stock and potential fordevelopment 3



i Potential in unexploited ranges of the EEZs W ‘


1.2.10 1 Management of marine fishery resources in the region “K if


1.2.11 The FSI agenda 1.2.12


Fishery impacts on deep vvater haitj‘ii'ta_ts1 -4“ 2 11


I Nutrition from seafoods i — .


1.3 14


1.3.2 Stock assessment and their biology M l

Materials and Methods

' y of the continental slope

F rshery Fesource surve

1.3.3 2 Harvesting technologies F2”


1 5--~-J 16


Biochemical analyses 1


E Proximate composition -2 2*

323 lI1I

Determination of moisture 33

I Determination of ash content



mDe_termination of crude-protein m :22


l Determination of crudemfat I


iw. _ _-.~_—;—_ ____:,.


Mode of determination of__amino acid and fatty acid profile ‘ m my 1.4


Resultsand discussions 35


. Summary and Conclusion A 3 W 7



References 3 I if I

Chapter2 Biochemical analyses of liver oils of selected sharks and

42 chimaeras of the Indian EEZ



Introduction __ _

2.2 Q


1 Review of literature 48

1 l

V. .



Elasmobranch resources of the Indian EEZ W _ W



I Statusmof chondrichthyan fishes in India


__ 2.2.3

The Catch statistics my I 30

_-_ ..2_'2'4 The .f.ishei..rieS . __ __.__._._ 52



2.2.5 Species composition

' 53

2.2.6 Distribution of the fishery 5 5



__ _¢. -_. --­

Distribution of landings

_ _ T557 !

2.2.3 Species selected for the study


Shark liver oils — an overview




i_ ‘Biochemical constituents ofshark liveroils 5 1 65 I

i Cholesterol levels in deep sea sharks 2.2.11


The hepagtosomatic index _of fishery resources W 75 Al : 75



Chromatographic techniques for the determination of lipid 76

The TLC-RFID using latroscan MK-6s

f 77




5 “The HPLC with evaporativelightscatteringdetector A 5 78

Materials and methods -3 _ 31


Extraction of liver oils Q __ 5* 3 ____ A 8_1____

T/Xnalysis of lipid components using TLC-FID 81 ‘ J



Analysis of lipid components using HPLC-ELSD ‘ 82

2.3.51 i Analysis of fatty acids using GC-FID


2.3.5 A Statistical analyses

A 33


Results H H 6 '34



l2.e Summary and conclusion

' 35. 2.. 88

2.7 f References

U A 89

; Chapter

3 Shark liver oils as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic' 96 l

and anti-ulcer agents

‘ 3.1

Introduction 96

3.2 . Review of literature

A L 98


3.2.1 , Competition yields diversity 5

g on Mg T100 A


The biomedical potential offered by marine organisms A 100

3.2.3 ylitiology and the pharmacological behaviour ofthe bioactives H 101 .

3.2.3.a Analgesic activity H

_ 1 3.1.01

3.b Pain mechanisms and control

A _103 l

3.2. 3.c

Aspirin V g - l 104


Opiods " A T 104


Experimentaltrials of analgesic activity usingplant extracts 106 2 1-—__ . - . ­

3.2.5 Hot plate reaction time in mice M

in +09


Analgesia testing H5 g _5 ‘ 110flm§




Anti-pyretics H I u W

Mechanism of action

[Anti-inflammation 110


‘C ‘115i

3.2.105 Normal thermoregulation

i 115

3.2.11 The pathogenesis of fever A ___

C ‘R 116

i 1121 C 2 lriiie Role OfPro_staglandin E2 117


3.2.13 1 The Cyclooxygenase Hypothesis 118

l 3.2.14 3.2.15

Experimental trials of antipyretic activity using plant extracts 118

Fish oils and alntipyretic eTfects it H

~ ---Q


3.2.16 Antiulcer property 120

3.2.17 HCI/ethanol-induced ulcer 122

l 3.2.13 A Anatomy and function of the Stomach 124





Causesof _U|cer __ __

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)


‘124 3.2.21 I A Non Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs

ulcer inducing agents

( NSAlDs) and other 125"


3.2.22 A Symptoms of gastric ulcer 126

3.2.23 . Diagnosis 127

g 3.2.24 I Treatment and medication 2 127


Ibuprofen H A


l Structure H _









3.2.28 1 Mechanism of action 129

3.2.29 Biological applications 3.2.30



V/_\nti—ulceroge.nic activities in plants H 131 K 3.2.31

—- 2 _ W _.__ -.-»

H Fish oil andulcer _


3.3 A 1 Materials and methods 134


2 3.3.1

Experimental animals if



3.3.2 g_2Experimental protocol 134 l


Analgesic activites 7 _

"135 ' l

A 3.3.4 “ Anti-inflammatory activity. 135


Antipyretic activitymg M“ L


3.3.3 Anti-ulcer studies A jg 137

3.3.6.a fEstimation of pepsin _ E



if Statistical analyses 7 2

138 l


3.4 3.4.1

V Results 7 All A


Acute toxicity of the oils‘ 7139

A 3.4.2 _g Analgesic activity of oils 139


2 Anti-inflammatory activity of oils 140

l. 3.4.4

1 Antipyretic effect V E

14o il



Anti-ulcer effects of CS oily 14b

3.5 1 A 3Di2scussions 2 K


3.6 A Summary and conclusion 147



3.7 g_ References


Shapter 4 The hypocholesterolemic fish oil _ 1



Introduction H g _

162 1

4.2 T Review ofliterature A 7


4.2.1 4 Cardiovascular diseases

-1 -­

l ... _ . ....- . ­





4.2.2 Diabetes mellitus

165 l


4.2.4 Hypertension__

Chronic kidney disease

166 166

4.2.6 A Dyslipidaemia _ it K-3 it 167

4.2.6 Hypercholesterolemia 167? _‘


Diet Induced Obesity roio) and cvo 166 f


4.2.8 y; CVD and the impact of lifestyle _____

4.2.9 '1:h“e'_estimated burden of C\il1')Hin theln_dian subcontinent 1* H



4.2.10 Risk factors of CVD


4.2.11 Markers of CVD F173 A

4.2.12 Stepsto lower the CVD burden inthe Indian subcontinent 176

4.2.13 Fish Oil and Cholesterol 1794 4 A

4.2.14 t Fish oil andftlzheimefs disease



A Fish oils andepilepsy & strokes F 160


Fish oil and Atherosclerosis it “F 161 j

I 4


Antifarrhythmic properties _ 162

4.2.16 ‘ Hypocholesterolemic effects of fish oils

162 l

4.2.19 4.2.20

The paradox behind the cholesterol-lowering effects of n­

fatty acids

3 F 163 A

Hypercholesterolemia in animal models 184%“

4.2.21 l Dieta

lipids and bodyweight _ it 185 :


. - We

1 Dietary substitution of rat feed with vegetarian sources

186 t


4.2.24 A Metabolism of fatty a '

Lipid metabolism during dietary substitution of rat feed with A fish oil sources

1664” '2

.,-i-_ ir __

s in the body

188 1


; cld

Foods that lower cholesterol 190 A


g _ Atherosclerosis and hypercholesterolemia _g _ F

191 A 4.2.27 Hypercholesterolemia and the antiokidant defense g "192 A


J 411.9­

_ High energy diets



Qoconut oil induced hypercholesterolemia H M



1 The metabolism of cholesterol 3 it A g W


4.2.31 Hypocholesterolemic action of fish oils in animals, on coconut I oil rich diets

195 Fl4

4.2.32 4.2.33



the body?

Are PUFA rich diets beneficial in reducing cholesterol levels in

Rolegof dietary fatty acids in immunity l 200


4.3 4.3.1

1 Materials and methods U

Preparation of PUFA from cod liver oil

202 202

4.3.2 1 Animals and diets um

203 1

4.3-3 4.3.4

.,. .

l Estimation of proteins _

Assay of the diagnostic marker enzymes

2042043 l 4.3.4.a l Assay of alamneiaminotransferase


204" ii


C" l

Assay of aspartate aminotransferase 205 4.3.4.c f1

4.3.5 4.3.6

Assay of lactate dehydrogena_s_e Estimation of total cholesterol

Lipoproteinfractionation 5 g M55 52

206 208


Estimation of high-density lipoprotein fraction 208

, C

Estimation of low-density lipoproteins

__1. _

A 206


Estimation of triglycerides M 5


4.3.9 Estimation of inorganic phosphorous m

_.._- - 1 2


209 210 i

4.3.10 L

Lipid peroxidation and tissue antioxidant stat Estimation of free fatty acids


i 211


Estimation of lipid peroxides (LPO) 211


Antioxidant defense system 211 Non-enzymatic antioxidants , '



4.3.11.b4 Determination of total redugzd glutathione (G

Vitamin E _ 7?


SH) 212


Antioxidant enzymes 21 3 Assay of glutathione-S-transferase 213

21.3.1 1.6 Estimation of glutathione peroxidase


214 Assay of superoxidejdigismutase

1 4.3.1171

214 Assay of catalasem



4.4 Results and discussions 5 216

4.4.1 Feed and bodyweights 216

4.4.2“ g f

”l5rotein Contents A



4.4.3 A

Diagnostic marker enzyme levels 217

1 4.4.4 Lipid pmfiié if "C


H 4.4.4.a

Cholesterol and triglyceride levels

1 216” Level of Free fatty acids and phospholipids 220

4.4.5 .

4.4.6 5

Lipid peroxides andjthe antioxidant defences in the heart 221 The myocardial fatty acid compositionof

isolipidemic diets 4.4.7

1 4.4.6 =

rats on differentw 225

The significance of n6/n3 fatty acid "rati"c>—


227 i

if 228


Summary and conclusion 229


References A 230

Chapter 55

Effect of Centrophorus scalpratus liver 0 induced rheumatoid arthritis in Albino rats

il against Cl:A:“


_l _ ___ 15.1 I

. 5.2

g 5.2.1

Introduction V

Review of literatureg

Arthritis H g

258 35%



Chronic arthritis A A


5.2.4 '

5.2.3 5

Causes of rheumatoid arthritis 263

Symptoms and signs _ 264




Cancer and inflammation 6

T 5.2.5

Inflammation can cause cancer

5.2.7 mfi The inflammatoryrnediators: CO_X NO and free radicals 5.2.7.a The cylcooxygense (COX) enzyme

5.2.7.b K The Discovery of Two lsoforms of COX

Differential Expression of COX-1 and COX-2 H

5.2.7.dThe Rationale for the Development of Specific COX-2-5


5.2.7.e , Does COX-2 serve a physiological function(s)'7 Does COX-1 serve an inflammatory function(s)'?

5.2.7.f COX ll selectivity


NO and NO Syntheses

The free radicals


Treatment options y

5.2.9 NSAIDS and DMARDS 5.2.9.a NSAIDS How NSAlDs work? {A Adverse effects of NSA|Ds 5.2.9.<i_ Haematopoietic 5 y 5.2.9.e Renal

5.2.10 Diet and rheumatoid arthritis 5.2.11 Fish oil and arthritis y 5.2.12 Fish oil versus vegetable oil 5.2.13 Ginger extracts and arthritis

5.2.14 K 1 Complete Freund's Adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats

5.2.15 2

MPO levels in arthritis 5.2.16 Protein levels in inflammation 5.2.17 A Glycoproteini components

5.2.18 The Glycolytic and gluconeogenetic pathways in inflammation _ 5

5.2.19 Antioxidant Metabolism


Lipid metabolism J y 7 y

5.2.21 Diagnostic marker enzymes in arthritis


Bone & Mineral Metabolism 5

5.2.23 Lysosomal enzyrnes in arlhrits

5.2.24 Dietary doses of fish oils and gingerol for health benefits


Materials and methods 5


Chemicals _


y_ A Animals 8 Diets‘ H _ —

5.3.3 K 1X-ray analysis 5


l-listopathological analyses 5 _


Determination of MPO levels

5.3.6 Determination of NOx exudate levels



5.3.1 1

Determination of cyclooxygenase (CDX)_levels

298 1

5.3.8 Determination of counts of Red Blood Corpuscles (RBC) and White Blood Corpuscles (WBC)

299 A

A 5.3.8.a RBC 299

WBC A U 5 A 0 299

5.3.9 A * 7 1 ~ 0 I

Estimation of blood creatrnine 299 ‘A


5.3.10 Estimation of blood urea 300


Diagnostic Marker enzymes Q g



Estimation of protein,free amino acids ' 1

Estimation 0? protein “H -30.1


5.3.12.b Estimation of albumin/globulin ratio

l 301

5.3.13 Electrophoretic separation and densitometric analysis of tissue proteins



Estimation of free amino acids 5 0 it


5.3.15 Estimation of glycoprotein components _

305 ‘.

1-1-3.0 Y

Estimation ofhexose 5*

Estimation of hexosamine l A


___.-i 1

Estimation of 5151165310 __



5.3.16 Carbohydrate components A 307


5.3.16.a Estimation of blood glucose

307 1


Estimation of hexokinase activity A 5-“ A


Estimation of aldolase activity A 308 1


Estimation ofglucose-6-phosphatase activity it 309


5.3.16.e jEstimation of fructose-1, 6-diphosphatase A

‘ 310 5.3.17 i

Estimation of inorganicphosphorous 310 5 DJ

5.3.18 l Estimation of tissue glycogencontent 5 A


5.3.19 Estimation ofATP in tissue A _



Chromatographic analysis 5 F-55312 l Extraction of fat

Lipids A ”' A 313 .313: .

Estimation of total cholesterol Estimation of triglycerides

313 A 314 it‘


1 A

Estimation of free fatty acids _ 315 A


Lipid peroxidation and tissueantioxidant status 316


Estimation otlipid peroxides (LPO)‘g kw


5.3.22 I Antioxidant defense system 1

31 0

Non-enzymatic antioxidants 1

-_ _-.. .. .._Q5i

Determination of total reduced glutathione (GSH)

310 1

Ascorbic acid 5

317 o-tochopherol _ _ 313 l! l

Antioxidant enzymes M 313

5.3.22.e g Estimation of glutathione peroxidase H 3T9_


5 5.4.21 W» Effect on triglyceride levels y W

T ___. ... V — i 352

5.4.22 Effect on level offree fatty acids in plasma and liver 5.1.23 Effect on formation of lipid peroxides


354 ‘



5.4.24 M Effect on membrane bound ATl°ase activities 356

5.4.25 1 Effect on mineral content 358


defence system _

Effect of CFA-induced arthritis on the hepatic antioxidant 5”

359 l


A Effect on non-enzymatic antioxidantsfi l


Effect on tissue glutathione levels



Effect on vitamins

361 i


I _ __ .._ __ .

Effect of CFA-induced arthritis on enzymatic antioxidants

362 i

55.4.28.a Effect on activity ofglutathione related enzymes at 5 362 5.4.28.b Effect on activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase 364


Summary and conclusion

References 4

lEffect of CFA-induced arthritis on lysosomal enzymes


368 I 373 l

Publications &—papers presented for symposiums 407


List of Tables Table

M No.


1a ‘ Participation of the team from CIFT, Cochin in cruises W

l1b 1c i List of species assessed for their stock size l Nfumber of species identified g


Abundance of deep sea fishery resources at different latitudes M

if 1e CPUE at different latitudes along Andaman waters n A


Abundance of deep sea fishery resources at different depths F

119 l CPUE at various depths along the Andaman waters if _


CPUEfordifferentgears ___g _ ,


.1i E Gear parameters collected with ITI system

Percentage frequency of occurrence of different food items in i

deep sea fishes _ g

A 1k Proximate composition of deep sea creatures ‘

Common names, depth, region of collection of deep sea creatures

g Lipid analyses A g_

Amino acid composition of ‘marine creatures I A

Fatty acid composition of certain deep sea creatures H _, Details of shark species collected during cruises Ki A

Fork lengths, body and liver weights and hepatosomatic indices of , sharks and chimaeras of the Indian EEZ

Characterisation of liver lipidsof elasmobranch resources

Total fatty acid compositionof liver oils from deep-sea sharks



l ,1"

10 2a

' 2b




3a I ‘The Effect Of S—'had< Liver Oils Andi Paracetamol On Acetic Acid- l

Gradient mobile phase composition iiiii if

Induced Writhing Test In Mice 7 g___Al



Inhibitory Effects Of Sharkliver Oils On The“ Formalin-Induced : Rat-Paw Oedema. Oils

3c 3d

Antipyretic effect of liver oils_g K

l Pearson's correlation coefficient

L 4a Effectof isolipidemic diets on body weights of rats g_

4b if Effect of isolipidemic diets on cholesterolf triglyceride,

phospholipid, free fatty acids and lipid peroxides in blood sera,

liver and heart tissues of rats

-Ff 4c ' Effect of isolipidemic diets on the antioxidant defence parameters

in the heart tissues of rats g



Fatty acid (as % total fatty acid) composition of lipid sources used T

A in thestudy V __ _

4e i Major constituents of the_fish oils _ H __


Diet composition (as total feed) of rats ,


49 Level of Fatty acids (as % total fatty acids) in the heart tissues 0 Albino rats

f 4h Pearson's Correlation tests if


—Composition*of the basal diet L if


ianhnfls 7 _ _ _

Anti-inflammatory activity ofCS oil and gingerol in CFA-induced 5c Effect of CFA-induced arthritis on free amino acids in liver

List of Figures

Figure No. Title

51 5 Relative abundance of deep sea fishery resources at different depths along the continental slopes

2 Feeding intensity of different species of deep sea fishes 2.1 ’ Calibration curves of lipid components using TLC-FID 5

3.1 Effect5Of Shark Liver Oils On The Hot Plate Reaction :l'ime Vs. The_Basal Latency(s)


F8'[S i

Anti-ulcer effect of C§oil against l3lCl-induced_'g_astric ulcerinq


4.1 Feed conversion ratio of animals on different isolipidemic diets 4.2 Effect of isolipidemic diets on protein contents in blood sera,

liver and heart tissues of rats

4.3 Effect of isolipidemic diets on diagnostic marker enzyme levels in blood and liver of rats



4.3 Effect of isolipidemic diets on diagnostic marker enzyme levels in heart tissues of rats

4.4 U Effect of isolipidemic diets on Iipoprotein levels in blood of rats 5.1

4 paw-sizes in CFA:induced arthritis in rats W_


inflammatory score

i Effect of Oscalpratusliver oil in comparison to gingerol <5}?

Effect of C. scalpratus liver oil in com parison-to gingerol ofnthei 5.3 Changes in body weight in CFA-induced inflammations in


7 Albino rats g g_ W 1%

7 Effect of CFA-induced inflammations on MPO levels 5.5 . Effect of CFA-induced inflammations on nitrite/nitrate levels 5.6

_ COX_activity in CFA-inducedarthritis g

5.7 l Effect of CFA-induced inflammations on RBC & WBC counts in CFA-induced inflammations in rats


._ _a-- -_ 00 _ .. - _ .... ..

Effect of CFA-induced inflammations on the liver weights of rats


5.9 Effect of CFA induced arthritis on blood and liver proteins j M 5.10 i Effect of CFA-induced arthritis on diagnostic marker enzymes __




5.11.a I

Effect of CFA-induced arthritis on glycoprotein


Effect of CFA-indticed arthritis on glycoprotgin components

5112 Effect of CFA-induced arthritis on albumiriwanid globulin

contents N _

5.15 Effect of CFA-induced arthritis on blood creatinine and urea 5.14 Effect of CF/K2-induced arthritis on blood glocose

5.15 Effect of CFA-induced arthritis on the activity of hexokinase in 1

@ liver

5.1 6 “Effect of CFA-induced arthritison activity of aldolase in liver” 3 5.17

Effect of CFA-induced arthritis on activity of glucose-6-;

5 phosphate in liver


. ..-- ..,.-_ _. ID­

Effect of CFA-induced arthritis on the activity of fructose-1,6- A

diphosphatase in liver 2

l 5.19 Effect of CFA-induced arthritis on ATP content in liver? 5 i 5.20 if ;MEffec2t of CFA-induced arthritis ovnxglycogen content in liver‘

5.21 Effect of CFA-induced arthritis on cholesterol contents 5.23? \ Effect of CFA-induced arthritis on triglyceride contents 5.23

5.24 i of CFA-induced arthritis on Wfreefatty acid conten_t_s _ Effect of CFA-induced arthritis on lipid peroxide contents

lll 5.25 Effect of CFA-induced arthritis on ATPase contents 3 5


3 1 Effect of CFA-induced arthritis on mineral contents 3 y

5127 Effect of CFA-induced arthritis on non-enzymatic defences ‘ 5.255 _ Effect of CFA-induced arthritis on enzymatic defences

_ - . ..- i .__ _ . ...-... i.-. ;._._. . - - ii



3 Effect of CFA-induced arthritisi on the activities of soperoxide if dismutase and catalase in liver of rats

+Effect of CFA-induced arthritis on lysosomal enzymes in liver of rats

5.31 I Effect of CFA-induced arthritis on lysosomal enzymes in liver

? of rats


Effect of CFA-induced arthritis on acid and alkaline

phosphatases in blood sera of rats .


3iEffect of CFA-induced énhritis on acid and jalkalineh

1 phosphatases in liver of rats M” __


List of Plates

Plate No. Title

l.1 Marine fishery resources of the Indian EEZ ?p_

- .-- --- _ -~-M1 _.. . - --—­ I.2 nStandard amino acid profile l it

Elasmobranch re urces from the Indian EEZ

ll.1 so

H32; it ‘ Determination of lipid classes using TLC¥F ID _

Il.3__ j Determination of lipid classes using HPLC-ELSD

||.4 i Standard fatty acid profile‘ l



V Bone Radiographs _A

V.2 ; Histopathology of bone tissues

V.3 Effect of CFA-induced arthritis on acute phase proteins in liver tissues of rats (SOS-PAGE photograph)


List of abbreviations








_ _






_ _


Arachidonic acid acid phosphatase

Adenosine -5-diphosphate Apristurus indicus

American Institute for Cancer Research Acquired lmmuno deficiency syndrome Alkaline Phosphatase

Alanine aminotransferase Analysis of variance Aminonaphthosulfonic acid Antioxidant Enzymes Azoxymethane

Ammonium per sulphate Arachidonic Acid

Aspaitate aminotransferase Adenosine triphosphate alpha tocopherol equivalents Bovine serum albumin Calcium ion


Cyclic adenosine monophosphate Catalase

Degree celsius

Centroselachus crepidater 1-Chloro 2 4 dinitrobenzene Complete Freund s Adiuvant Chloroform Heptane Methanol Coronary Heart Disease

Central Institute of Fisheries Technology Conjugated linoleic acid

Coenzyme A Cyclooxygenase

Committee for the Purpose of Control and supervision of experimental animals

Catch per unit effort Centrophorus scalpratus Cubic

Copper sulphate Cardiovascular disease Diethyldithiocarbomate Docosahexaenoic acid Dihomo gamma linolenic acid Decilitre

Dimethyl benzanthracene

Disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs Deoxyribonucleic acid

2,4 Dinitrophenyl hydrazine Doxorobucin


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