**DAYALBAGH EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTE **
**FACULTY OF ENGINEERING **

**B.TECH. (ELECTRICAL): 2019-20 **
**SECOND SEMESTER **

**COURSE **

**CODE ** **COURSE TITLE ** **Credit ** **End sem. **

**Exam ** **Theory/ **

**Practical **

PHM281 APPLIED PHYSICS II 3 Y T

PHM282 APPLIED PHYSICS LAB. 1 Y P

EEM201 COMPUTER CONCEPTS & C PROGRAMMING 3 Y T

EEM202 BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 3 Y T

MEM201 ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS 3 Y T

MEM202 ENGINEERING MECHANICS I 3 Y T

MEM203 ENGINEERING DRAWING II 3 Y P

MAM281 ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS II 3 Y T

EGC281 INDUSTRIAL VISITS 1 N P

ESC281 ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 2 N T

GKC281 SC. METH., G.K. & CURRENT AFFAIRS II 1 N T

RDC281 AGRICULTURAL OPERATIONS II 1 N P

RDC282 SOCIAL SERVICE 1 N P

CAC281 CO-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES 3 N P

**ADDITIONAL COURSE FOR ELECTRICAL **

MEM204 WORKSHOP PRACTICE II 1.5 Y P

**ANCILLARY COURSE ANY ONE TO OPTED FROM THE FOLLOWING (FOR ALL **
**BRANCHES) **

ENH281 ENGLISH II 3 Y T

HSH281 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 3 Y T

MUH281 SANGEET KRIYATMAK II 3 Y P

SYH281 SOCIOLOGY OF SCIENCE 3 Y T

ABH281 PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS 3 Y T

ACH281 FUNDAMENTALS OF ACCOUNTING 3 Y T

BBH281 BUSINESS ORGANISATION 3 Y T

OMH201 COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUES HINDI II 3 Y T

ZOH281 BASICS OF NEUROSCIENCE 3 Y T

**Course Number: PHM281, Course Title: APPLIED PHYSICS II **

Class: B.Sc. Engg., Status of the Course Number: MAJOR, Approved Since Session: 2012-13 Credits: 3, Periods (55 mts. each) per week: 4 (L:3 + T:1+ P:0), Min. Periods/Sem.: 52 UNIT 1: SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY

Special relativity, time dilation, Doppler effect, length contraction, twin paradox, relativity momentum, mass and energy, energy and momentum, Lorentz transformations, velocity addition.

UNIT 2: PARTICLE AND WAVES

Electromagnetic waves, blackbody radiation, photoelectric effect, x-ray diffraction, compton effect,

pair production, photons and gravity, de-Broglie waves, phase and group velocities, particle diffraction, uncertainty principle , applying the uncertainty principle.

UNIT 3: ATOMIC STRUCTURE

The nuclear atom, electron orbits, atomic spectra, the bohr atom, energy levels and spectra, correspondence principle, nuclear motion, atomic excitation,

UNIT 4: QUANTUM MECHANICS

Quantum mechanics, the wave equation, Schrödinger equation: time-dependent form, linearity and

superposition, expectation values, operators, Schrödinger’s equation: steady-state form, particle in

a box, finite potential well, tunneling, harmonic oscillator.

UNIT 5: THE SOLID STATE

Statistical distributions, Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics, molecular energies in an ideal gas, quantum

statistics, specific heats of solids, free electrons in a metal, electron-energy distribution, crystalline

and amorphous solids, ionic crystals, covalent crystals, van der Waals bond,metallic bond, band

theory of solids, semiconductor devices, energy bands, superconductivity.

Suggested Readings:

*Arthur Beiser : Concepts of Modern Physics(sixth edition, 2003). McGraw-Hill *

### Course Outcomes

### 1. Gain further experience in using the tools, methodologies, language and conventions of physics to test and communicate ideas and explanations

### 2. Understand the concept of relativity, frame of reference, mass-energy equivalence 3. Visualize uncertainty principle, wave-particle duality of light

### 4. Capable of applying quantum mechanics to the problems of atomic physics

### 5. Understand applications of quantum mechanics to transistors, semi-conductors and other related systems.

### Question Bank

**UNIT 1 **

1. State the postulates of special relativity. Directly from these postulates, derive an expression for time dilation.

2. Derive an expression for length contraction in special relativity.

3. A ladder which is 10 meters long at rest cannot fit in a small shed which is 8 meters long at rest.

However, you decide to move the ladder at a high speed relative to the shed, so that the ladder’s length becomes contracted and it can fit in the shed. Your friend argues that this cannot work, because from the ladder’s reference frame, the shed will be moving at high velocity and the shed

will be length contracted, and the ladder will remain 10 meters long. Who is right and why?

4. A father is 25 years older than his son. He wants to travel outward from Earth for two years, and then back to earth for two years (both intervals as he measures them) such that he is 25 years younger than his son when he returns. What constant velocity is required for each leg of the trip?

5. How much work must be done to increase the speed of an electron at rest to (a) 0.500c (b) .0.990c (c) 0.999c?

6. A spaceship, moving away from Earth at 0.900c sends signals back to Earth with frequency 100 MHz (as measured in the spaceship frame). To what frequency must the Earth antennas be tuned to receive the signal?

7. An electron initially at rest in a cathode-ray tube is accelerated by a potential difference of 50 kV.

What is its resulting speed according to special relativity? What would its speed be according to nonrelativistic physics?

8. Galaxy A is observed to be receding from us at 0.35c. Galaxy B is receding from us in the opposite direction at the same speed (0.35c). What would an observer on Galaxy A measure for (a) the speed of our galaxy relative to Galaxy A (b) the speed of Galaxy B relative to Galaxy A?

9. Using Lorentz transformations, derive an expression for velocity addition in special relativity.

10. A particle has lifetime 1.00 ×10^{-7 }s in its rest frame. How far does it travel (as measured in the
lab) before decaying if its speed is 0.99c when it is created?

11. Find the momentum of an electron whose kinetic energy equals its rest energy of 511 keV.

12. An observer detects two explosions that occur at the same time on his clock. One occurs near him and the other 100 m away. Another observer observes that the two events occur 160 m apart.

What time interval separates the two events according to the second observer?

13. Two events happen simultaneously in the reference frame of an inertial observer. Will they be simultaneous in all other reference frames?

**UNIT 2 **

1. A metal surface illuminated by light of frequency 8.5 ×10^{14 }Hz emits electrons whose
maximum kinetic energy is 0.52 eV. The same surface illuminated by light of frequency 12

×10^{14 }Hz Hz emits electrons whose maximum kinetic energy is 1.97 eV. From the above data,
obtain Planck's constant h and the work function of the surface.

2. In a Compton effect experiment: (i) Find the change in wavelength of 80 pm x-rays that are scattered 120 degrees by the target, (ii) Find the angle between the directions of the recoil electron and the incident photon. (iii) Find the energy of the recoil electron in eV.

3. A photon of frequency f is scattered by an electron initially at rest. What is the maximum possible kinetic energy of the recoil electron?

4. Express the Planck radiation formula in terms of wavelength.

5. (a) Find the energy of a 700 nm photon (in eV). (b) Find the wavelength and frequency of a 100-MeV photon. (c) A 1.00 kW radio transmitter operates at 880 kHz. How many photons per second does it emit?

6. The maximum wavelength for photoelectric emission in tungsten is 230 nm. What wavelength of light must be used in order for electrons with a maximum energy of 1.5 eV to be ejected?

7. The smallest angle for Bragg diffraction in potassium chloride is 28.4 degrees for 0.30 nm x- rays. Find the distance between atomic planes in potassium chloride.

8. Find the approximate gravitational redshift of 500 nm light emitted by a white dwarf star whose
mass is 2.0 ×10^{30 }kg, and radius is 6.4 ×10^{6 }m.

9. A positron collides head on with an electron and both are annihilated. Each particle has a kinetic energy of 1.00 MeV. Find the wavelength of the resulting photons.

10. At what scattering angle will incident 100-keV x-ray leave a target with an energy of 90 keV?

11. (a) Find the de Broglie wavelength of an electron with velocity 10^{7 }m/s and a golf ball with mass
46 g and velocity of 30 m/s. (b) An electron has de Broglie wavelength 2.00 pm. Find its kinetic
energy and the phase and group velocities of its de Broglie waves.

12. Find an expression for the phase velocity and group velocity for the de Broglie waves of a particle of mass M with de Broglie wavelength λ.

13. Using the uncertainty principle, estimate the minimum energy of an electron in a box of size 1 angstrom.

14. An excited atom emits a photon. The average time period that elapses between the excitation of
the atom and the time that it emits a photon is 10^{-8 }s. Find the uncertainty in energy and

frequency of the photon.

15. How precisely can the position of a proton (with v much less than c) be determined without giving it more than 1.00 eV of kinetic energy.

**UNIT 3 **

1. A positronium "atom" consists of a positron and an electron in orbit around each other. What is the ionization energy of positronium?

2. Derive an expression for the bohr radius and the energy levels of hydrogen in the bohr model of the atom.

3. Let a be the Bohr radius. According to the Bohr model of the atom, what is the de
Broglie wavelength of an electron in the first excited state in terms of *a?*

4. An electron in hydrogen transitions from n=3 state to the n=2 state, and emits a photon. What is the energy of the photon?

5. How much energy is required to remove an electron from the n=2 state of hydrogen?

6. Find the radius and speed of an electron in the ground state of doubly ionized Lithium and compare with the same quantities in hydrogen atom.

7. The longest wavelength in the Lymann series is 121.5 nm, and the shortest wavelength in the Balmer series is 364.6 nm. Using these two numbers, find the longest wavelength of light that can ionize hydrogen.

8. What is the shortest wavelength present in the Brackett series of spectral lines? The Paschen series of spectral lines?

9. Determine the distance of closest approach of 1.00 MeV protons incident on gold nuclei.

10. Explain the Franck Hertz experiment and its significance.

11. A mixture of ordinary hydrogen and tritium ( a hydrogen isotope whose nucleus contains one proton and two neutrons) is excited and its spectrum is observed. How far apart in wavelength will the two kinds of hydrogen be?

**UNIT 4 **

*1. * Find the allowed energy levels of a particle in a one-dimensional box of length *L.*

2. Find the uncertainty in x for a particle in one-dimensional box of length L in the 3rd excited state.

3. A particle is in a one-dimensional box of length L is in the ground state. You observe its position. What is the probability you find it in the left half of the box? What is the probability you find it in the left ⅓ of the box?

4. Derive an expression for the energy levels of a particle in a one dimensional box.

5. Derive an expression for the time-independent schrodinger equation from the time dependent schrodinger equation. Discuss its physical interpretation.

6. How deep must a finite potential well be in order to have three ground states?

7. What are the allowed energy levels of a simple harmonic oscillator? What is the ground state wave function for a simple harmonic oscillator?

8. An electron and a proton approach a potential barrier of height U and width d. Both have the same kinetic energy E<U. Which has the greater chance of tunneling through the barrier?

9. Electrons with energy 0.400 eV are incident on a barrier 3.00 eV high and 0.100 nm wide. Find the probability for these electrons to penetrate the barrier.

10. Sketch the first few wavefunctions of a particle in a finite potential well.

**UNIT 5 **

1. A cubic meter of hydrogen at 0 degrees C and at atmospheric pressure contains about

2.7 ×10^{25 }atoms. Find the number of these atoms in their first excited state at 0 ℃ and at
10,000 ℃.

2. Verify that the rms speed of an ideal gas molecule is about 9 percent greater than its average speed.

3. Find the rms speed of oxygen molecules at 0 ℃.

4. At the same temperature, will a gas of classica molecules, a gas of bosons, or a gas of fermions exert the greatest pressure? why?

5. Find an expression for the mean energy and median energy in a free electron gas at zero temperature.

6. Find the Fermi energy of copper. The density of copper is 8.94 ×10^{3 }kg per cubic meter, and the mass of
copper is 63.5 atomic mass units.

7. Find an expression for the most probable speed of an ideal gas molecule.

8. Discuss the Dulong Petit law for the specific heat of solids. To what extent is it valid? How did Einstein modify this law to take into account quantum statistics?

9. Why are some solids transparent to visible light and others opaque?

10. Compare the band structures of insulators and semiconductors.

11. The Joule-Thomson effect refers to the drop in temperature a gas undergoes when it passes slowly from a full container to an empty one through a porous plug. The expansion is into a rigid container so no mechanical work is done. Explain the

### Joule-Thomson effect in terms of the van der Waals attraction between molecules.

12. Lithium atoms have only one electron in their outer shells, yet they do not form diatomic molecules like Hydrogen does. Instead, Lithium is a metal with each atom part of a crystal lattice. Why?

13. When germanium is doped with aluminum is the result an n-type or p-type semiconductor?

Why?

14. Describe the characteristic features of superconductivity. Explain the Meissner effect and distinguish between type I and type II superconductors.

15. Explain the working of a junction diode. Explain the physical origin of its voltage-current characteristic graph.

16. Briefly explain the physics of a n-p-n junction transistor.

**Course Number: PHM282, Course Title: APPLIED PHYSICS LAB. **

Class: B.Tech., Status of the Course: MAJOR, Approved Since Session: 2012-13 Credits: 1, Periods (55 mins. each) per week: 3(L:3+T:1+P:0), Min. Periods/Sem.: 40 Based on Theory Course.

### Course Outcomes

### 1. Understand the basic concepts of electric and magnetic fields.

### 2. Understand the concept of conductors, dielectrics, inductance and capacitance. Gain knowledge on the nature of magnetic materials.

### 3. Understand the concept of static and time varying fields. The ability to identify, formulates, and solve physics problems.

### 4. The ability to formulate, conduct, analyzes and interprets experiments in physics.

### 5. The ability to use modern physics techniques and tools, including mathematical techniques, graphs and

### laboratory instrumentation.

**Course Number: EEM201, Course Title: COMPUTER CONCEPTS & C PROGRAMMING **
Class: B.Tech., Status of Course: MAJOR COURSE, Approved since session: 2015-16
Total Credits: 3, Periods (55 mts. each)/week: 3(L:3+T:0+P:0+S:0), Min.pds./sem: 39
UNIT 1 : COMPUTER SYSTEM ELEMENTS

Essential computer hardware- CPU, memory, input & output, storage, factors affecting processing speed; Software- system software, application software; Operating Systems; functions, features and examples of modern OS.

Problem Solving using Computer Programs: Concept of an algorithm, heuristics, Flowcharts and pseudo-code.

Programming Languages: Low level- machine and assemble language, assembler; High level languages- chief characteristics and examples, compilers and interpreters.

UNIT 2 : C LANGUAGE ELEMENTS, OPERATORS AND EXPRESSIONS

Preprocessor directives, identifiers and reserved words, fundamental data types and variables, storage classes (automatic, external, static and register), statements, standard input & output functions, general form of a C program.

Operators and Expressions: Arithmetic, logical and relational operators, unary operators, conditional operators, mixed operands and type conversion, Operator precedence and associativity.

UNIT 3 : Control Structure AND MODULAR PROGRAMMING

Control Structures: Conditions, selection: If statement, nested if-else statements, the switch statement, using break and default with switch; iteration: while, do-while and for statements, nesting in loops; using the break and continue statements.

Modular Programming: Defining and accessing function, functions prototypes, passing arguments to functions by value, recursion.

UNIT 4 : ARRAYS, STRUCTURES & UNIONS AND POINTERS: Array notation, declaring and referen- cing arrays, manipulation of array elements, multi-dimensional arrays.

Structures and Unions: Purpose of using structures, declaring and assigning structures, unions.

Pointers: Pointer fundamentals and pointer arithmetic, pointers and arrays, pointer references as function arguments, dynamic memory allocation.

UNIT 5 : FILE HANDLING AND STANDARD C-LIBRARY

Data Files: Introduction to files, basic operations to open, close, read and write to data files.

Standard C Library: The standard C library; Examples of functions including I/O- fopen, fread etc.;

string handling functions, math functions like pow, sin etc. and other standard library functions.

SUGGESTED READINGS:

Byron S Gottfried: PROGRAMMING WITH C, 2^{nd} Edition, Tata McGraw Hill.

Jeri R. Hanly and Elliot B. Koffman: PROBLEM SOLVING AND PROGRAM DESIGN WITH C, 6^{th} Edition, Pearson.

Peter Norton: INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS, Tata McGraw Hill.

Dennis P Curtin et. Al.: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY THE BREAKING WAVE, Tata Mc Graw Hill.

Patvardhan C: INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS AND PROGRAMMING IN C, Khanna Book Publishing.

Rajaram V: FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTERS, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi.** **

### Course Outcomes

### 1. Understanding the basics of computer hardware and software: fundamentals of operating systems, systems software, compilers; algorithms, representation using flowcharts and pseudo-code

### 2. Writing simple programs using simple C language constructs, conditionals and iterative statements 3. Writing C programs using constructs such as arrays, strings and functions.

### 4. Developing programs using pointers and dynamic memory allocation; using structures and unions to solve problems

### 5. Exercising files concept to show input and output of files in C; exploring the various features of the standard C library

### Question Bank

### Unit 1

### 1. Explain the working of a modern computer with the help of a block diagram. What are the chief characteristics of each generation in the evolution of computers?

### 2. Briefly discuss the memory hierarchy in a typical computer system. What is the role of memory in the execution of programs?

### 3. What is software? Give some examples of well known applications software and systems software.

### What are they used for?

### 4. What is an Operating System? Explain its main functions in detail.

### 5. What is a ‘process’ in the context of operating systems? Define the term ‘multi-tasking’, and discuss the role of the operating system in enabling the concurrent execution of multiple processes on a computer with a single microprocessor.

### 6. Write short notes on

### a) Machine language, assembly language and high level languages b) Compilers, assemblers and interpreters

### c) Cache and virtual memory

### d) Machine, Assembly and high-level programming languages 7. Explain how a program is different from a software product.

### 8. Explain what you understand by the terms: software development and software development life cycle (SDLC). Describe the key phases and activities of a typical SDLC.

### 9. What are the main symbols used for drawing flowcharts? Briefly explain the connotation of each, and draw a flowchart for finding the largest of three input numbers.

### 10. Provide pseudo-code, and also draw a flowchart for a) computing the factorial of a given integer.

### b) finding the average of n numbers.

### Unit 2

### 1. Discuss the basic data types in C.

### 2. What is a

*statement in C? Discuss the different types of statements in C, giving suitable examples*

### of each.

### 3. What is the role of the pre-processor in C? Explain the use of pre-processor directives like #include and #define with suitable examples.

### 4. Write short notes on the following:

### (a) The ASCII Character Set

### (b) Storage classes in the C language

### 5. Write a C program to calculate and display the volume (V) and area (A) of a sphere using the formulae: Area A = 4*PI*R

^{2}

### and Volume = AR/3, where R is the radius.

### 6. Write a program to read your name, roll number and CGPA and displays them to the screen.

### 7. Write a C program that accepts a real number and prints the integral and fractional parts on the screen.

### 8. Write a C program to convert a temperature reading in degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius, using the formula: C = (5/9)x(F-32).

### 9. What is meant by operator precedence and associativity? Build a table showing the associativity and relative precedence of various types of operators supported in C.

### 10. What is a unary operator? Discuss the purpose of any two unary operators supported by the C language. Also explain with a suitable code sample, the use of the conditional operator

(?:)### .

### . Unit 3

### 1. Write a C program to determine the amount of money that would accumulate in a bank after n years

### if a known amount, P, is deposited annually and the account collects interest at a rate of r percent per

### year, compounded annually.

### 2. Write a menu-driven C program to perform the basic arithmetic operations of a simple desktop calculator.

### 3. Write a program to calculate and display the roots of a quadratic equation of the general form Ax

2### + Bx + C = 0.

### 4. Write a program that reads a line of text containing digits and letters (both lower case and upper case) and writes out the text with the lowercase and uppercase letters reversed, and all other characters unchanged.

### 5. Write a C program that reads the year as input from keyboard, and prints whether it is a leap year or not.

6. Write a program that takes an integer as input (e.g. 3456) and outputs the number with the order of digits reversed. For example, input: 3456; output: 6543.

### 7. In the Fibonacci series, each number is the sum of the previous two numbers of the series, except for the first two numbers of the series, which are 0 and 1 respectively. In other words, F

i### = F

i-1### + F

i-2### . F

0### = 0 and F

1### = 1. Write recursive and iterative functions to display all Fibonacci numbers less than a given number n.

### 8. Write a recursive function to compute (a) the sum of the first n natural numbers (b) the factorial of a given number.

### 9. Write c programs to generate the following asterisk patterns using nested loops:

### a)

### * * * * *

### * * * *

### * * *

### * *

### *

### b)

### * * *

### * * *

### * * * *

### * * * * *

### c)

### * * *

### * * *

### * * * *

### * * * * *

### d)

### * * *

### * * *

### * * * *

### * * * * *

### 10. The sine of x can be calculated approximately by summing the first n terms of the infinite series:

### sin (x) = x - x

^{3}

### /3! + x

^{5}

### /5! – x

^{7}

### /7! + . . ., where x is expressed in radians (p radians = 180 degrees).

### Write a C program that will read in a value for x and will calculate sin (x) by summing the first n terms of this series (n being specified by the user). Modify this program so as to continue adding successive terms until the value of the next term becomes smaller (in magnitude) than 10

^{5}

### .

### Unit 4

### 1. Write a C function that returns the largest of three numbers. Extend this function to handle the general case of n numbers, assuming that the numbers are passed to the function in the form of a 1-D array.

### 2. Write a C program that reads in the marks of k students into an array, and prints the highest, lowest, and average marks. Assume that marks are integers in the range

### [0,100].

### 3. Write a C program that reads a string of characters (terminated by a new line character) and displays the reversed string.

### 4. Write a C function for finding the largest element of an array. Pass the array as an argument to the function. Also write a C program to test this function.

### 5. Write a program in C which reads two matrices from the console and displays the sum and product of the two matrices.

### 6. Write a C program to sort a given array of numbers in ascending order.

### 7. A palindrome is a word, phrase or sentence that reads the same way either forward or backwards.

**abcdcba **

### and

**1234321**### are examples of palindromes. Write a C program that reads a line of text (which could be a word, phrase or sentence) and determines whether it is a palindrome or not.

### 8. What is meant by dynamic memory allocation? Why is it needed? Using C’s dynamic allocation features, write a program requesting the user to input a string and then print the string backwards.

### 9. What are pointers? Explain the relationship between pointers and arrays in C.

### 10. Write a function that swaps two numbers by exchanging the contents of their respective memory locations.

### 11. Write a function that performs binary search on a sorted array of numbers.

### 12. Differentiate between structures and unions. Define a complex number using a C structure. Write functions to add, subtract and multiply complex numbers.

### Unit 5

### 1. What is a file? Explain the following terms with reference to the file concept: field, record, key and index.

### 2. Explain how files are classified on the basis of (a) file access method (sequential/random) and (b) the way data is stored (text/binary).

### 3. Describe the fundamental operations that are performed on files.

### 4. Briefly discuss the three standard streams available in the C programming language, and elaborate on the different modes of opening a file in the C language.

### 5. Write a program that reads a line of characters (ending with newline) from the standard input and writes the line to a text file.

### 6. Write a program to read two file names from the command line. If the number of arguments in the command line are more than or less than two, then the program should terminate with an appropriate error message. Otherwise, it should open the first file and copy its contents into the second file, in effect overwriting its contents, if any.

### 7. Write a C program to read a data file containing roll number, name and marks out of 100 for five subjects for all the students of your section and compute and display the average percentage marks of the class and the name, roll number and marks of the class topper.

### 8. Write a C program to count the number of characters and lines in a given text file.

### 9. Describe in general terms, the various functions available in the standard C library.

### 10. Write an algorithm to compute the prime factors of a given integer. Briefly describe the functions from the standard C library would you use for implementing your algorithm.

**Course Number: EEM202, Course Title: BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING **
Class: B.Tech., Status of Course: MAJOR COURSE, Approved since session: 2004-05
Total Credits: 3, Periods (55 mts. each)/week: 4(L:3+T:1+P:0+S:0), Min.pds./sem: 39
UNIT 1: CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

Review of basic concepts of units, voltage, current, energy, etc. R, L, and C - their geometrical, electrical and energy view point. Ohm’s law, KVL, KCL, Mesh Analysis and Nodal Analysis. Thevenin’s and Norton’s Superposition theorem. Maximum Power Transfer Theorem. Star Delta conversion.

UNIT 2: AC CIRCUITS

Principles of single phase and three phase generation (qualitative treatment only). Steady state analysis of RC, RL and RLC circuits for sinusoidal excitation. Phasor notation, RMS Values, Power Factor. Resonance. Complex Power, active and reactive power. 3-phase (balanced & unbalanced) system.

UNIT 3: MAGNETIC CIRCUITS AND TRANSFORMERS

Ampere’s Circuital law and Constant Flux Theorem. B-H curve, Magnetic circuit calculations.

Hysteresis and Eddy Current losses. Transformers: construction emf-equation ratings phasor diagram on No-load and Full-load, e.g. circuits, Open circuits and short circuit test, efficiency and regulation operation of auto transformers.

UNIT 4: ELECTRICAL MACHINES

Classification, construction, emf and torque production. Characteristics of DC motors and generators, application. Induction motors: revolving magnetic field, principle of torque production, ratings, construction (squirel cage and would rotor) Torque speed characteristics. Application.

UNIT 5: ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS

PMMC meters, moving iron ammeter and voltmeter. Dynamometer wattmeter, AC energy meter.

Extension of instrument ranges.

SUGGESTED READING:

BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: Kothari & Nagrath

HUGHES ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY: (Revised by) I Mckenzie, Smith ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS: V Del Toro

### Course Outcomes

### 1. Analyze dc resistive networks with the help of basic laws of electrical engineering and network theorems.

### 2. Perform the steady state analysis of RLC networks for 1-phase and 3-phase sinusoidal excitation and also determine the frequency response of resonant RLC networks.

### 3. Describe the principle of operation, construction and testing of transformers and autotransformers.

### 4. Describe the principle of operation, construction and characteristics of various types of dc & ac rotating machines.

### 5. Explain the working of commonly used electro-mechanical instruments.

### Question Bank UNIT - I : CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

1. (a) How much work is done in moving 100nC of charge to a distance of 68cm in the direction of a uniform electric field given by E = 80KV/m?

(b) If one horsepower (HP) is 0.746KW, how much energy does a 20HP motor deliver in 20 min. Give answer in units ( 1 unit = 1000 Watt-hour).

2. A sheet of foil that is 10.16cm wide and 0.0108cm thick must carry 4A and is permitted to dissipate a
maximum of 5.104mW. If its conductivity is 5.805 x 10^{7} S, what is the maximum length of foil that can
be used?

3. A metal wire having a resistance of 0.1567W at a temperature of 20^{o}C is to be used in an application
where its resistance can lie between 0.1314W and 0.1872W . If its temperature coefficient of
resistance is 0.00314W ^{o}C/m, find the permitted temperature extremes.

4. Reduce the circuit between the terminals A &

B to a single resistance.

5. Calculate the resistance of 220V bulbs rated at 25W, 40W, 60W, 75W and 100W.

6. Two resistors made of different material having temperature coefficient of resistance a1 = 0.004^{o}C^{-1}
and a 2 = 0.005^{o}C^{-1} are connected in parallel and consume equal power at 10^{o}C. What is the ratio of
power consumed in resistance R2 to that in R1 at 60^{o}C?

7. An electric heating pad rated at 110V and 55W is to be used at 220V source. It is proposed to connect the heating pad in series with a series-parallel combination of light bulbs each rated at 110V. Bulbs

A B

ohm 6

16ohm ohm

6 ohm 2

6ohm ohm

ohm 3 6

are available having ratings of 25W, 60W, 75W and 100W. Obtain a possible scheme of pad bulbs combination. At what rate will heat be produced by the pad with this modification?

8. If the current flowing through a 4-H inductor is given by the waveform shown alongside, sketch the voltage across the inductor and evaluate the energy stored at 16 ms.

9. In the figure given alongside determine the voltage drops across R1 and R2 if the value of R 3 is 20 Ohms.

10. In the circuits shown alongside, ideal voltage and current sources are used. Determine in

each case, the power delivered/dissipated by each source and each resistor.

11. A voltage (current) wave shown alongside is

applied across an inductor (capacitor) of value 0.5H (2F). Determine and sketch the variation of current (voltage) through (across) the inductor (capacitor) for the first 10 seconds.

12. If a calorie is equal to 4.184J and it takes 1000 calories to raise 1 Kg of water through 1^{0}C, how much
current is carried by a 120V heater if it is used to heat 4.82 Kg of water from 25^{0}C to 45^{0}C in 4 min?

What is the resistance of the heating element?

13. Determine the unknown currents in the figure shown alongside.

14. Determine the unknown voltages in the network graphs shown below.

+40V

R5 ohm20

ohm5 R4 R3

ohm R2 20

R1 ohm10 100V +

+ - 1A ohm3 2V

1ohm ohm

2

2 5 6 8 9 t in ms
*I(t) *

10A

-10A

*Sine *
*wave *

Voltage/

Current

* 3 6 8 t in *
*seconds *

2

-1

*Sinusoid *

2A
1A *i**2*

*i**5*

4A
*i**3*

* i**4*

-2A 1A 1A

15. Write and solve the equations for the node voltages in the network shown alongside.

Then find the branch current Ix and the branch voltage Vy, where Ix is the current in 60V source and VY is the voltage across 10A source.

16. Use mesh analysis to determine the power dissipated in the 16W resistor in the figure shown alongside. What is the power supplied by each source?

17. In the circuit shown alongside, the ammeter reads 1A with switch S closed. If the switch is opened the ammeter reading drops to 0.25A.

What will ammeter read if it is connected in series with the load resistance RL (and not in parallel) under the two conditions (a) switch S open & (b) switch S closed?

18. Using Thevenin’s theorem, find the power delivered to the 3W resistor in the circuit shown alongside. Verify your result using nodal analysis.

19. A linear network containing dc sources and resistors is shown in the box with two pairs of terminals being brought out for connecting sources. When a voltage source V1 is connected across terminals A-B, with C-D being left open, a 5W resistor in the network dissipates 20W. Now, when the voltage source is replaced with a short circuit and a current source I1 is connected across terminals C-D, the same 5W resistor dissipates 5W. What will be the power

dissipation if both V1 and I1 are connected to terminals A-B and C-D respectively?

Comment on all the possibilities.

8ohm 8ohm

ohm6 6ohm

10A

+ -24V +

-60V 2ohm

1A +

-36V

16ohm ohm10 ohm

30

ohm 32 ohm

24 160V- +

+ -

120V

+ -40V +

-80V

+ -

60V

ohm 20 + -40V

R 60ohm

ohm RL20 S

+E A

ohm 40

ohm10 10ohm

ohm 5

3ohm

+ 120V +

10V 10ohm +

160V

- 6V + + V1 - + + + + -

V6 4V V3 6V 24V - - + + V2 - - + + + 10V - + 2V - - 12V V5 V7 - - 4V +

### Linear Network

A B

C D

20. Find the Norton’s equivalent circuit as seen by RL in the circuit shown alongside.

21. Given 3 resistors R1, R2 and R3 connected in star (delta) determine their delta (star) equivalent resistors RA, RB, and RC in terms of R1, R2 and R3.

22. Determine the equivalent resistance across points A and B in the circuits shown in figures (a) & (b) below.

Fig.(a). Fig.(b)

23. Use Thevenin’s theorem to determine the current IL through the 2W resistor of the network shown alongside.

24. Determine the current through the 5W resistor in the network shown alongside using Thevenin’s theorem and Norton’s Theorem.

25. Find the value of RL in the circuit shown alongside such that maximum power delivered to it and find the value of maximum power.

26. Determine the current through and voltage across 30W resistance in the circuit shown alongside using (i) Thevenin’s Theorem and (ii) Norton’s Theorem.

27. State and prove the maximum power transfer theorem for a d. c. network.

### UNIT - II : A.C.CIRCUITS

### 28. Find the average and the effective values of the various waveforms shown below.

ohm30 ohm RL 10

ohm60

+100V

+40V

+120V ohm 30

B A

ohm ohm 4

ohm 4 4

ohm 3

ohm 3

ohm 3

ohm 3

ohm 3

ohm 3

B A

ohm 10

ohm 2

8ohm ohm 4

ohm 2

5 amp

+

10 volt

3 ohm 2 ohm

+

20 volt 10 ohm

5 ohm

10 ohm 15 ohm

5 ohm +

- 100 V

10 A

RL 50ohm

25 ohm 300 ohm

200 ohm +

- 100 V

30 ohm 50ohm

60 ohm

120 ohm +

- 36 V

29. A series R-L circuit with R=5W and an inductive reactance of 12W draws current from a.c. supply given by i(t)=10Sin100t. Determine (a) complex impedance, (b) instantaneous supply voltage (c) value of inductance, (d) active and reactive power delivered by the source. Also draw a phasor diagram showing different voltages and currents.

30. A series R-L circuit dissipates 576W when a sinusoidal voltage of 120V r.m.s. is applied across it. The current is found to be 16.97Sin (314t + x). Determine (a) R, (b) L and (c) X.

31. A sinusoidal voltage *V**m**Sinwt is applied across 3 parallel branches. Two of the branch currents are *
given by *i**1**(t) = 14.14Sin(wt -37*^{O}*) and i2(t) = 28.28Cos(wt -143*^{O}*) . The source current is found to be: *

*i(t) = 63.8Sin(wt + 12.8*^{O}*). Determine the effective value of the current in the third branch. *

32. An r.m.s voltage 100 *0** ^{O }*is applied to the series combination of Z1 and Z2 where Z1 = 20 30

^{O}. The effective voltage drop across Z1 is known to be 40

*-30*

*. Find the reactive component of Z2.*

^{O}33. For the circuit shown, (a) determine the value of X which will make the source current to be in phase with the supply voltage. (b) Is the element inductive or capacitive? What is the value of element (inductance/

capacitance)? What power is delivered to the 100W resistance under the condition mentioned in (a)?

34. For the circuit shown, find the values of L and
C such that the source delivers maximum
power to the load at w=10^{4 }rad/s. What is the
power delivered to the load when (a) w=10^{3 }

rad/s. (b) w=10^{5} rad/s? Let V*s **= 100* *0** ^{O}*.

### Ð Ð

### Ð

100ohm X

0.1H 25uF

3ohm + - 141Sin100t

### Ð

ohm100 L

C 600ohm

+ - Vs

* *0 p 2p 3p w*t*

*i(t) * * i(t) *

* 0 T/2 T 3T/2 2T 5T/2 3T t *

*A * *V**m*

* *0 p/4 p 5p/4 2p 9p/4 3p w*t*

*i(t) *
*A *

* v(t) *
* V**m *

* 0 *

*-V**m**/2 * *2T/3 T 4T/3 2T 6T/3 3T t *

14 November, 2019 (16)

35. A parallel RLC circuit is connected to an ac current source of variable frequency source of 1A r.m.s. At resonance a voltage of 141.4V r.m.s. is observed across the circuit. The voltage drops to 100V r.m.s. at frequencies of 1.9 KHz and 2.1 KHz. Determine the values of R, L and C.

36. A 400V, 3-f voltage is applied to a delta-connected balanced 3-f load. The r.m.s. value of the
phase current is *10* *-30*^{O}* Amp. Find (a) the magnitude and phase angle of the line current, (b) *
total power received by the load and (c) the value of the resistive portion of the load. Repeat parts
(a) and (b) with the load impedances reconnected in star (Y).

37. Calculate the active and reactive current components in each phase of a star-connected 10KV, 3-f generator supplying 5000KW at a power factor of 0.8. If the total current remains the same when the load power factor is raised to 0.9, find the new output.

38. Discuss the merits and demerits of the 3-f system. On a symmetrical 3-f system with phase sequence RYB, a capacitive reactance of 8W is across Y-B and a coil R+jX is across R-Y. Find R and X such that IY = 0.

39. Show how 2 wattmeters can be connected to measure power in a 3-f, 3-wire system. Derive expressions for the readings of the two wattmeters for a balanced 3-f system in terms of the voltages, currents and phase angle of the load and hence derive an expression for the power factor in terms of the two wattmeter readings.

40. The power in a balanced 3-f system is measured by 2-wattmeter method. The readings of the two watt meters are 5KW and 0.5KW, the latter being obtained after reversing the current coil connections. Calculate the power and the power factor of the load.

### UNIT – III: MAGNETIC CIRCUITS AND TRANSFORMERS

41. Define m.m.f, flux, reluctance and permeability. Give a brief comparison between an electrical circuit and a magnetic circuit. Give an expression for force produced between parallel conductors and then define ampere.

42. Explain Ampere’s law and Ampere’s circuital Law. Also explain constant flux theorem.

43. A coil of insulated wire of 500 turns and of resistance 5W is closely wound on an iron ring. The ring has a mean diameter of 0.3m and a uniform cross-sectional area of 600 sq.mm. Calculate the total flux in the ring when a d.c. supply of 6V is applied to the ends of the winding. Assume a relative permeability of 560.

44. A magnetic core, in the form of a closed ring, has a mean length of 20cm and a cross section of 1 sq.cm. The relative permeability of iron is 2400. What direct current will be needed in a coil of 2500 turns uniformly wound round the ring to create a flux of 0.25mWb in the iron? If an air gap of 2mm is cut through the core perpendicular to the direction of this flux, what current will now be needed to maintain the same flux in this gap? What fraction of total ampere-turns is required to maintain the flux in the air gap?

45. A magnetic circuit comprises of three parts, a, b and c in series, each of which has uniform cross sectional area. Part ‘a’ has a length of 85 mm and cross sectional area 50 sq.mm. Part ‘b’ has a length of 70 mm and cross sectional area of 85 sq.mm. Part ‘c’ is an air gap of length of 0.5mm and cross sectional area 60 sq.mm. Neglecting magnetic leakage and fringing, determine the current necessary in a coil of 4000 turns wound on part ‘b’ to produce in the air gap a flux density of 0.7Tesla. The magnetic characteristics of part ‘a’ and ‘b’ is given by:

46. What is magnetic hysteresis? Explain why eddy current and hysteresis losses occur in an iron core? On what factors do these losses depend? How can these losses be minimized?

47. Discuss the principle of operation of a transformer? Where is it used?

### Ð

H (A/m) 100 210 340 500 800 1500 B (Tesla) 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

14 November, 2019 (17)

48. Explain different types of transformers and their applications. What is an ideal transformer?

49. Describe the construction of core type and shell type transformers. How are the windings put on the core? Why is high voltage winding not put near the core?

50. Why are transformers required to be cooled? What are the different methods used for cooling?

Discuss.

51. Derive the e.m.f. equation of a transformer.

52. The e.m.f. per turn of a single phase 10KVA, 2200/220V, 50Hz transformer is 11V. Calculate (a) number of primary and secondary turns and (b) the net cross sectional area of core for a maximum flux density of 1.5Tesla.

53. A 3300/300V, 50 Hz single phase transformer is built on a core having an effective area of 150sq.cm. and has 90 turns in the low voltage winding. Calculate the value of maximum flux density in the core and number of turns in high voltage winding.

54. A transformer takes 1A when its primary is connected to a 230V, 50Hz supply. The secondary is open circuited. The power absorbed from the supply is 50W. Determine the loss component of the no- load current and the magnetizing current.

55. Draw and explain the phasor diagram of a transformer on no-load and on full load conditions.

56. Develop the equivalent circuit of a 1-f transformer and discuss the significance of each of the elements in the circuit.

57. Describe the purpose and the procedure of conducting the open and short circuit tests on a single- phase transformer.

58. A 200/400V, 50Hz single phase transformer on test gave the following results. Find the voltage regulation at full load at 0.8 power factor lagging.

Open circuit test on LV side: 200V 0.7A 70W Short circuit test on HV side: 15V 10A 80W

59. What is meant by commercial efficiency and all-day efficiency of a transformer? How are they determined? Explain.

60. In a 25KVA, 2000/200V transformer, the iron losses and copper losses are 350W and 400W respectively. Calculate the value of iron and copper losses, which will give maximum efficiency and also calculate the value of maximum efficiency.

61. What is voltage regulation? What should be the range of voltage regulation of a transformer?

62. Why is the efficiency of a transformer more than 95%? Explain.

63. Explain the principle, construction and applications of an auto-transformer. What are its drawbacks?

64. A 50Hz, 1-phase transformer has a turns-ratio of 6. The resistances are 0.90W and 0.03W and the reactances are 5W and 0.13W for high voltage and low voltage winding respectively. Find (a) the voltage to be applied to the high-voltage side to obtain full-load current 200 A in the low-voltage winding on short circuit (b) the power factor on short circuit.

65. A 150 KVA transformer has an iron loss of 700W and a full load copper loss of 1800W. Calculate the efficiency at full load, 0.8 power factor lagging.

### UNIT -IV: ELECTRICAL MACHINES

14 November, 2019 (18)

66. Using the concept of mechanical drag and back e.m.f., show that a d.c. machine is a converter of energy for converting electrical energy into mechanical energy and vice versa.

67. Describe the constructional details of a d.c. machine with suitable diagrams. Name the materials used for each part.

68. Discuss the classification d.c. machines on the basis of their excitation.

69. Derive the e.m.f. equation of a d.c. generator from fundamentals.

70. Explain the mechanism of torque production in a d.c. motor and derive the torque equation.

71. Draw and explain various characteristics of a d.c. shunt generator.

72. Draw and explain various characteristics of a d.c. series generator. Also discuss its applications.

73. Why is compounding done? What are the various types of compounding? Draw and explain various characteristics of a d.c. compound generator.

74. Draw and explain various characteristics of different types of d.c. motors and discuss the application of each type of motor.

75. A shunt machine connected to 250V mains has an armature resistance (including brushes) of 0.12W and the resistance of the field winding is 125W. Find the ratio of the speed as a generator to speed as a motor, the line current in each case being 80A.

76. A 4-pole, long shunt, lap wound generator supplies 25KW at a terminal voltage of 500V. The armature resistance is 0.03W, series field resistance is 0.04W, and shunt field resistance is 200W.

The brush drop may be taken as 1 volt per brush. Determine the e.m.f. generated.

77. A 4-pole, wave wound armature has 720 conductors and rotates at 1000 rpm. If the useful flux is 40 mWb, calculate the generated voltage.

78. An 8-pole lap connected armature has 40 slots with 10 conductors per slot and generates a voltage of 400 volts. Determine the speed at which it is running if the flux per pole is 50 mWb.

79. A short shunt compound d. c. generator delivers 100A at 250V. The armature, shunt field and series field resistances of the generator are 0.1W, 0.15W and 125W respectively. Calculate the voltage generated in the armature winding. Neglect brush voltage drop.

80. A long shunt compound generator delivers a load current of 50A at 500V and the resistances of armature, series field and shunt fields are 0.05W, 0.02W and 250W respectively. Calculate the generated e.m.f. and the armature current. Assume 1 volt per brush drop.

81. Define synchronous speed and slip. Why does an induction motor always run at speeds less than synchronous speed?

82. What is an induction motor? How is it different from a d.c. motor? Explain.

83. Describe different types of rotor construction employed in an induction Motor. Explain the applications of each type.

84. Explain the mechanism of torque production in an induction motor.

85. Draw and explain the torque-speed characteristic of an induction motor. Mark the operating region on it and explain why it is operated only in this region?

86. A 12 pole, 3-f alternator is coupled to an engine running at 500 rpm. It supplies an induction motor, which has a full load speed of 1460 rpm. Find the slip and the number of poles on the motor.

14 November, 2019 (19)

87. The frequency of the e.m.f in the stator of 4 pole induction motor is 50Hz. and that in the rotor is 1.5Hz. What is the slip, and at what speed is the motor running?

88. A 3-f, 6-pole, 50Hz induction motor has a slip of 1% at no load, and 3% at full load. Determine: (a) synchronous speed, (b) No-load Speed, (c) Full load Speed, (d) frequency of rotor current at stand-still (e) frequency of rotor current at full load.

### UNIT - V: MEASUREMENTS

84. What is meant by (a) indicating type, (b) recording type and (c) integrating type instruments? Give an example of each.

85. What are the different torques required in an electromechanical indicating meter? Explain why each type of torque is needed?

86. Discuss methods of producing controlling and damping torques in a measuring instrument.

87. Describe the principle and construction of a PMMC galvanometer. How is it converted into an ammeter and a voltmeter? Explain.

88. Explain the principles of operation of attraction and repulsion types of Moving Iron instruments with the help of neat constructional diagrams. Derive the general equation of deflection for such meters.

Discuss the shape of the scale obtained.

89. Explain why moving iron instruments can be effectively used for both dc and ac measurements.

90. State the relative merits and demerits of moving iron and moving coil instruments.

91. Discuss the constructional details and working of a dynamometer type wattmeter.

92. Distinguish between a wattmeter and a watt-hour-meter. Explain the construction and working of a 1-f energy meter.

93. Explain the methods used for extending the range of ammeters and voltmeters – both d.c. and a.c.

**Course Number: FCM201, Course Title: ACCOUNTING FOR ENGINEERS **
Class: B.TECH-B.COM., Status of Course: MAJOR, Approved since session: 2016-17
Total Credits: 3, Periods (55 mts. each)/week: 4 (L-4+T-0+P/S-0), Min.pds./sem:52
UNIT 1: OVERVIEW OF ACCOUNTING

Meaning, Objects and Importance of Accounting, Accounting Concepts & Conventions, Double Entry System.

UNIT 2: ACCOUNTING CYCLE

Journal, Ledger, Trial Balance and Subsidiary Books.

UNIT 3: BANK RECONCILIATION STATEMENT, CAPITAL & REVENUE, ACCOUNTS FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANISATIONS

Bank Reconciliation Statement, Capital and Revenue, Receipt & Payment account and Income &

Expenditure account.

UNIT 4: DEPRECIATION, PROVISIONS AND RESERVES AND ERRORS

Depreciation: Meaning, Need, Cause and Methods of Providing Depreciation (SLM and WDM) Provisions: Nature Kinds and their creations, Errors: Types and their rectifications

UNIT5: PREPARATION OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

Trading Account, Profit & Loss Account and Balance Sheet, Adjustments.

SUGGESTED READINGS:

Batliboi JR: ADVANCED ACCOUNTS Gupta RR: ADVANCED ACCOUNTANCY

Gupta SP & Arjun Das: ADVANCED ACCOUNTANCY Shukla MC & Grewal TS: ADVANCED ACCOUNTS Shukla SM: ADVANCED ACCOUNTANCY

Gupta RL: ADVANCED ACCOUNTS

14 November, 2019 (20)

**Course Number: MEM201, Course Title: ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS **
Class: B.Tech., Status of Course: MAJOR COURSE, Approved since session-2013-14
Total Credits: 3, Periods (55 mts. each)/week: 4(L:3+T:1+P:0+S:0), Min.pds./sem.: 39
UNIT 1

Basic Concepts and Definitions: System. Introduction and definition of thermodynamics;

Dimensions and units, Microscopic and Macroscopic approaches; System, surroundings and universe, Concept of continuum, Control system boundary, control volume and control surface.

Properties and state, Thermodynamic properties, Thermodynamic path, process and cycle, Thermodynamic equilibrium, Reversibility and irreversibility, Quasi static process, Energy and its forms, Work and hear. Gas laws, Idea gas, Specific Heats and their calculations.

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: Zeroth law of thermodynamics, Temperature and its measurement, Temperature scales.

UNIT 2

First Law of Thermodynamics: Thermodynamic definition or work, Thermodynamic processes, Calculation of work in various processes and sign convention, Non-flow work and flow work, Joules’ experiment, First law of thermodynamics, Internal energy and enthalpy, First law of thermodynamics applied to open systems, Steady flow systems and their analysis, Steady flow energy equation, Application of equation to Boiler, Condenser, Evaporator, Turbine, Nozzle, Compressor (Rotary & Reciprocating), Throttling process etc., Introduction to unsteady processes such as filling and evacuation of vessels with and without heat transfer, PMM-I.

UNIT 3

Second Law of Thermodynamics: Limitations of first law of thermodynamics, Devices converting heat to work, Thermal reservoir, Heat engines, Efficiency, Devices converting work to heat, Heat pump, refrigerator, Coefficient of Performance, Reversed heat engine, Kelvin's-Plank's statement of second law of thermodynamics, Clausius statement of second law of thermodynamics, Equivalence of two statements of second law of thermodynamics, Reversible and irreversible processes, Carnot cycle and Carnot engine, Carnot theorem and it’s corollaries. Thermodynamic temperature scale, PMM-II.

Entropy: Clausius inequality, Concept of Entropy, Entropy change in different thermodynamic processes, Tds equation, Principle of entropy increase, T-S diagram, Statement of the third law of thermodynamics.

Availability and Irreversibility: Available and unavailable energy, Availability and Irreversibility, Second law efficiency.

UNIT 4

Properties of Steam: Pure substance, Property of steam, Triple point, Critical point, Sub-cooled liquid, Saturation states, Superheated states, Phase transformation process of water, Graphical representation of pressure, volume and temperature (P-V-T surfaces), P-T & P-V diagrams. T-S and H-S diagrams, use of property diagram. Steam-Tables & Mollier charts, Dryness fraction and its measurement.

UNIT 5

Real Gases: Deviation of real gases from ideal gases. Different forms of the equation of state.

Reduced properties. Compressibility factors chart. Maxwell relations. Joule-Thomson coefficient, Clapeyron’s equation.

Engines: Steam Engines- Constructional details and working.

Introduction of IC Engines: Otto and Diesel cycle (No numerical), Working of compression Ignition engines, spark Ignition engines, 2 stroke and 4 stroke engines, Theoretical & actual indicator diagrams and valve timing diagrams.

SUGGESTED READING:

Cengel & Boles: ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS, TMH

Sonntag: FUNDAMENTALS OF THERMODYNAMICS, Wiley India Pvt. Ltd.

Van Wylen: FUNDAMENTALS OF CLASSICAL THERMODYNAMICS, John Wiley & Sons.

J.P. Holman: THERMODYNAMICS, McGraw Hill.

P.K. Nag: ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS, TMH.

Onkar Singh: ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS, New Age International Publication.

R.K. Rajput: THERMAL ENGINEERING, Laxmi Publication.

C.P. Arora: ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS.

14 November, 2019 (21)

**Course Number: MEM202, Course Title: ENGINEERING MECHANICS I **

Class: B.Tech., Status of Course: MAJOR COURSE, Approved since session: 2000-01 Total Credits: 3, Periods (55 mts. each)/week: 4(L:3+T:1+P:0+S:0), Min.pds./sem: 52 UNIT 1: REVIEW

Vector. Unit vector. Components of a vector. SI units and their notations. Concurrent force system. Resultant & equilibrant.

GENERAL FORCE SYSTEM: Moments of a force and of a couple. Resultant of a coplanar force system. Single force equivalent. Resultant of a general force system. Wrench. Free body diagram.

Equilibrium of a rigid body. Static indeterminacy.

UNIT 2: STRUCTURES

Trusses. Method of joints. Method of sections. Force analysis of frames and machines.

DISTRIBUTED FORCES: Gravitational forces. Surface loadings.

UNIT 3: STATICS OF LIQUIDS

Hydrostatic pressure. Centre of pressure. Bouyancy.

FRICTION: Dry friction. Systems involving sliding or tipping. Wedges. Square threaded screws.

Belt friction.

UNIT 4: INTERNAL FORCES

Bending of beams. Differential relationships between rate of loading, Shear Force and Bending Moment. Beams and cantilevers. Shear force, bending moment and axial force diagrams for horizontal beams with concentrated (vertical and inclined), uniformly distributed and uniformly increasing loads and moments. Inclined beams. Beams floating on water.

UNIT 5: VIRTUAL WORK

Principle of Virtual work Potential energy, Stability.

MOMENTS OF INERTIA: Area moments of inertia. Parallel axis theorem. Transformation of axes.

SUGGESTED READING:

Dayaratnam: STATICS Ginsberg & Genin: STATICS Shames: STATICS

Meriam: STATICS Hibler: STATICS

**Course Number: MEM203, Course Title: ENGINEERING DRAWING II **

Class: B.Tech., Status of Course: MAJOR COURSE, Approved since session: 2000-01 Total Credits: 3, Periods (55 mts. each)/week: 3(L:0+T:0+P:3+S:0), Min.pds./sem: 39 UNIT 1: JOINTS

Rivets and Riveted Joints, Welded Joints and their Symbols, Bolts and Bolted Joints, Pins and Cotters, Kuckle and Cotter Joints. Screw Threads, Screw and Screwed Fastenings. Pipes and Pipe Joints.

UNIT 2: BEARINGS AND BRACKETS

Shafts, Pulleys, Keys, Shaft Couplings, Simple Bearings, Plummer Block, Wall, Bracket.

UNIT 3: STEAM ENGINE PARTS

Stuffing Box, Cross Head, Connecting Rod and Crank. Eccentric, Slide Valve. (Free Hand Sketching of Various Parts Stated Above)

UNIT 4 & UNIT 5: GRAPHIC STATICS

Representation of Forces using Bow’s Notation, Determination of Resultants and Reactions.

Application To Coplanar Force Systems Including Frames and Beams. SF and BM Diagrams for Beams and Cantilevers with Concentrated and V.D. Loads. Use of Funicular Polygons.

SUGGESTED READING:

Laxminarayanan & Mathew: M/C DRAWING Vijayvergiya: M/C DRAWING

Sastry & Prasad: APP. MECHANICS Bhatt: MACHINE DRAWING

Perkinson: FIRST YEAR ENGG., DRAWING

14 November, 2019 (22)

**Course Number: MEM204, Course Title: WORKSHOP PRACTICE II **

Class: B.Tech., Status of Course: MAJOR COURSE, Approved since session: 2000-01 Total Credits: 1.5, Periods (55 mts. each)/week: 3(L:0+T:0+P:3+S:0), Min.pds./sem: 39 MACHINE SHOP

Demonstration of different Machines & Operations: Lathe Machine, Milling Machine, Shaping Machine.

(a) Practice of different operations of Lathe Machine: (1) Facing (2) Tapper Turning (3) Plain Turning (4) Step Turning etc.

(b) Practice of making Vee-block on Shaping Machine on C.I. Casting.

(c) Practice of making different shapes from cylindrical rod on Milling Machine (1) Hexagonal (2) Square (3) Triangular & Practice of Indexing.

SMITHY SHOP

Demonstration of different tools of shop.

Practice of different operations of Smithy Shop-(1) Upsetting (2) Drawing Down (3) Setting Down (4) Bending (5) Revetting.

PATTERN SHOP

Demonstration of pattern shop tools.

Idea of different pattern allowances-(1) Contraction allowance (2) Draft allowance (3) Machining allowance (4) Rapping allowance (5) Distortion allowance.

Practice of a pattern of Vee-block by fixing allowances.

**Course Number: FEM201, Course Title: ELEMENTARY LEATHER TECHNOLOGY **
Class: B.Tech., Status of Course: MAJOR COURSE, Approved since session: 2014-15
Total Credits: 3, Periods (55 mts. each)/week: 3(L:0+T:0+P:3+S:0), Min.pds./sem: 39
UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION TO LEATHER

Introduction about leather manufacturing, Raw, hides and skins structure composition of hides defects, flaying and curing, Different methods of Preservation of hides & skins, Visual inspection for defects in leather. Elementary knowledge about pre-tanning process like curing, soaking, liming, deliming and drenching, bating pickling, Degreasing.

UNIT 2: INTRODUCTION TO TANNING

Introduction about tanning, Classification and methods of tanning, syntans, their classification and uses, post tanning and finishing operations.

UNIT 3: TYPES OF LEATHER AND ITS REQUIREMENTS FOR FOOTWEAR

Types of finished leathers, common defects in finished leather, characteristics of leather required for the manufacturing of footwear

UNIT 4: PROPERTIES OF LEATHER

Inherent difference in fiber structure in different parts of hide and its influence in the cutting of footwear components, physical properties, Tensile strength, plasticity, elasticity, Thermostatic property and their bearing on foot and body comfort, tear Resistance, wet and dry rub resistance.

UNIT 5: SELECTION AND GRADES OF LEATHER

Common problems arising from insects and from micro-organisms in leather manufacture, Selection criteria for purchase of different types of leather, Assortment of leather into different grades.

SUGGESTED READINGS:

NIIR Board of Consultants & Engineers, Leather Processing & Tanning Technology Handbook, 2005 K.T.Sarkar. AJoy Sarkar, Theory and practice of leather Manufacture, Madras.

S.S.Dutta, Introduction to the principles of leather manufacture, Indian Leather Technologists Association Calcutta 1980.