**ELSEVIER ** Statistics & Probability Letters 22 (1995) 167-173

**STATISllIC$ & **

**PROBABILITY ** **LETTERS **

**Likelihood ratio tests for bivariate symmetry against ** **ordered alternatives in a square contingency table **

H a m m o u E1 Barmi a, S u b h a s h C. K o c h a r b'*

*"Department of Mathematics, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA *
*b Indian Statistical Institute, 7, S.J.S. Sansanwal Marg, New Delhi 110016, India *

Received January 1994

**Abstract **

Let (X 1, X2) be a bivariate random variable of the discrete type with joint probability density function *Po *= pr [X1 = i,
X2 = j ], i, j = 1 ... k. Based on a random sample from this distribution, we discuss the properties of the likelihood ratio
test of the null hypothesis of bivariate symmetry Ho: *Pi~ = Pii V(i,j) *vs. the alternative H i : Po ~> P~, ¥i > j , in a square
contingency table. This is a categorised version of the classical one-sided matched pairs problem. This test is asymp-
totically distribution-free. We also consider the problem of testing H1 as a null hypothesis against the alternative H2 of no
restriction on po's. The asymptotic null distributions of the test statistics are found to be of the chi-bar square type.

Finally, we analyse a data set to demonstrate the use of the proposed tests.

*Keywords: * Chi-bar square distribution; Joint likelihood ratio ordering; Least-favourable configuration; Matched pairs;

Ordinal data; Stochastic ordering

**1. Introduction **

S q u a r e c o n t i n g e n c y tables arise frequently in *before and after e x p e r i m e n t s *in m a n y areas like public health,
medicine, p s y c h o l o g y a n d sociology, when a given n u m b e r of individuals or items are m e a s u r e d before a n d
after t r e a t m e n t to determine its effect. T h e recorded d a t a are usually o r d e r e d on a categorical scale like
o c c u p a t i o n a l status, level o f injury, grade in an examination, etc. Let the r o w variable Xz d e n o t e the
m e a s u r e m e n t before t r e a t m e n t is given a n d let the c o l u m n variable X1 d e n o t e the c o r r e s p o n d i n g measure-
m e n t after treatment. Thus, we have a categorized version of the classical m a t c h e d pairs problem. T h e
objective in such experiments is to s u m m a r i s e the difference between X1 a n d X2 as caused by the treatment,
t a k i n g into a c c o u n t the d e p e n d e n c e between X I a n d X z . W e w o u l d like to see whether X1 is greater t h a n X2
a c c o r d i n g to some *stochastic ordering sense *or not. Thus, o u r alternatives are usually, directional in such
problems.

* Correspondence address: Department of Statistics, The University of Iowa, 14 MacLean Hall, Iowa city, IA 52242-1419, USA.

0167-7152/95/$9.50 © 1995 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved
*SSDI *0 1 6 7 - 7 1 5 2 ( 9 4 ) 0 0 0 6 4 - F

168 *H.E. Barmi, S.C. Kochar / Statistics & Probability Letters 22 (1995) 167-173 *

Suppose that Xa and X 2 take values in a set S of cardinality k. Without loss of generality, we assume
that S = {1 ... k}. Let *p ~ = p r [ X = i , * *Y = j ] . * We assume that all the p~Ss are strictly positive.

Take a r a n d o m sample of size n on (X~,X2) and let n~j be the observed frequency of the (i,j)th cell for
*i , j = * 1,... k with ' Y'~= t ZI=~ n~j = n. Thus, our data are in the form of a k x k square contingency table. k k
On the basis of this data, first we consider the problem of testing the null hypothesis of bivariate
symmetry,

Ho: p~j = *P~i, V ( i , j ) ~ S 2, * (1.1)

against the alternative

H i : *Pij >>- Pji, Vi ~ j. * (1.2)

Ir:j

We say that Xx is greater than X2 according to *joint likelihood ratio ordering (X~ >1 *X2) if and only if
(1.2) holds (see Shanthikumar and Yao, 1991). It has the following interpretation in terms of expectations of
functions of X~ and X2.

Let

(d~lr := {g(x, y) ~ g(y, X), VX ~ y}. (1.3)

lr:j

Then X~ >t X2 if and only if

*E[g(Xa, *

X2)] /> E[g(X2, X,)], Vg ~ ~ . (1.4)
It may be mentioned that joint likelihood ratio ordering is an extension of the concept of *ordinary *
*likelihood ratio ordering *(that is, *~j= a Plj/Zj= l PJi *k k non-decreasing in i) to compare two *dependent *random

lr:j

variables. It is easy to show that X1 /> X2 implies that the marginal distribution of Xa is *stochastically *
*greater *than that of X2 (that is, Z~= 1 •k= ~ *p,j *~ Z~= ~ •k= ~ p,j, for r = 1 ... k).

We also consider the problem of testing the order restriction as imposed by (1.2) as the null hypothesis
against the alternative H 2 of no restrictions on the *p~j's. *

Bowker (1948) discussed the problem of testing H0 against the two-sided alternative Po # Pji for all i ~ j and recommended chi-square goodness of fit test for this problem. McCullagh (1977, 1978) proposed some parametric models to study such problems. In this paper we use the nonparametric approach. Compared to parametric tests, minimal assumptions are needed for the validity of the nonparametric tests. If H0 is rejected using the nonparametric test, one can go in for more detailed analysis of the problem using the appropriate parametric models to obtain estimates of the treatment effects.

In Section 2, we obtain the maximum likelihood estimators of the p~j's under Ho, H1 and H2 and then use these to construct the likelihood ratio statistics in Section 3. The asymptotic distributions of the test statistics are obtained and they are seen to be of the chi-bar square type (a mixture of independent chi-square distributions). An attractive feature of our asymptotic test of Ho against Ha is that it is a similar test, a property which does not hold very frequently in order-restricted testing problems. The least- favourable configuration in testing H 1 as a null hypothesis has also been obtained and we give an upper bound on the probability of type-one error in this case. In the last section, we report the results of a simulation study on the powers of the proposed tests and also give an example to demonstrate our test procedures.

*H.E. Barmi, S.C. Kochar **I **Statistics & Probability Letters 22 (1995) 167-173 * 169

**2. M a x i m u m likelihood estimation **

Let N = *((nij)), *P = ((Pu)) be the matrices of the cell frequencies a n d the cell probabilities. T h e likelihood
function is

Since N has a m u l t i n o m i a l distribution, the u n c o n s t r a i n e d m.l.e, of Pu is/~u = *n u / n , (i,j) e S 2. *T o find the
m.l.e's of the pu's u n d e r H0 a n d H 1, we r e p a r a m e t r i z e the p r o b l e m as follows.

Let, for i > j,

*Oij = P i j / ( P i j q- *Pji), *~bu **= Pij q- **Psi * a n d *~bi **= Pii, * (2.2)

so t h a t for i > j ,

Pu = 0u~bu, Psi = ~bu(1 - 0u) a n d p , = ffi. (2.3)

In t e r m s of the new p a r a m e t e r s , the p r o b l e m reduces to testing the null hypothesis H 0 : 0 u = ½, for all *(i,j) *
against the alternative H x : 0 u 1> ½ for all (i, j ) a n d with strict inequality for s o m e *(i,j). *

T h e likelihood function in t e r m s of the new p a r a m e t e r s is

**, ** **)(01 ) **

1

"u .. "J' "'J +"J . . . . (2.4)

*L oc * *0 u ( -- 0,~ * *u * *i * *• *

*x.i>j * *i *

T h e unrestricted m.l.e, o f 0 u is/9"u = *n u / ( n u + nji). *T h e m.l.e.'s u n d e r Ho are

/~'(i °) = 1/2, *1-cbt°)u = (nu + nji)/n, * *i > j * (2.5)

a n d

*~ ( i ° ) = n i i / n , * i = 1 ... k

U n d e r the alternative H i : 0~j t> ½ for i > j . T h e r e are no additional constraints on q~u's a n d ff{s so their
m.l.e.'s r e m a i n u n c h a n g e d . T h e m.l.e of *0 u *u n d e r H~ is given b y

*-(,,_(__nij * *~ *

^{1 }v - for i > j , (2.6)

*Oij - \ n i j + n j i / * *2 ' *

where a v b (a A b) d e n o t e s the m a x i m u m ( m i n i m u m ) of a a n d b. U s i n g (2.3) a n d (2.6), we find t h a t the m.l.e's of pu's u n d e r Hx are

*u = * *n * *L n u + nji *

**~ **

^{(1) }**(.,,+n,,)r .,, ^ **

*J~ = * *n * *L n u -1- **nji *

for i > j , (2.7)

for i > j , (2.8)

*^(1) * *_~(o) * *rill~n, * *i = 1 . . . k. * (2.9)

*Pii * *= Dii *

**3. Likelihood ratio tests **

In this section we derive the likelihood ratio tests for testing H o against H I a n d also for testing H I against the alternative H2, where H2 puts n o restriction on P. W e see below t h a t b o t h the tests are of c h i - b a r s q u a r e

170 *H.E. Barmi, S.C. Kochar / Statistics & Probability Letters 22 (1995) 167-173 *

type and where as the first test is asymptotically similar over Ho, the second one is not. For the second test we find the asymptotic least-favorable configuration and an upper bound on its asymptotic type-one error probability over HI.

*3.1. Testing *Ho *against H1 *

The likelihood ratio test for testing Ho against HI rejects Ho for small values of

### l-I,>j(½)"'~(½r~'

Aol l-i,> j(01j,).u(1 _ 0 1 ~*m ) .j, (3.1)

The log-likelihood ratio is To~ = - 21nAox

E [noln/~I~) + nji In (1 ^(I)

*= * *- Oij ) - n,j *In (½) - n j/In (½)3. (3.2)

*i>j *

Expanding In tgti~ ~ and In (½) about 0ij and expanding In (1 - 01j ) and In (½) about (1 ^(1) 0o) using Taylor's expansion with a second-degree remainder, we find from the properties of isotonic regression that the linear terms cancel out giving

*TOl =i~>jnij{_ L ( ~ ! I .) *

*0~2",~, J -- ij) "~-~j(Oij-- ½)2} *

*~ 2*

*^*

**{ ** **1 ** **t **

**{**

**1**

**t**

*+ * *- *

I"-

*nji ~ *

~'nq n ~ - ' ~ m 0 )2, ~n° + - ~ - , (3.3)

*= i>jL(lgiJ- 12)2Lflq + YijJ * *(V,j -- ij Lc~-~q * *j * 6(iJJ

where ~o,

*flij, ~ij *

and 7q are random variables converging almost surely to ½ under Ho.
By the Central Limit Theorem for multinomial variables, the random matrix x//-n(/~ - P) has a limiting
multivariate normal distribution with mean 0, a k x k matrix whose all entries are zeros and with dispersion
matrix F, = *(aa,s,) *where

**a,k,,, = Ptk(rl~,,, - - P,,), **

and where 6'k,,t = 1, if(l, k) = (s, t) and zero otherwise. Using the multivariate delta method (cf. Serfling, 1980,
p. 122), it follows that for i > j , the K = *k(k - * 1)/2 random variables v/-n(0u - 0ij) have asymptotically the
same distribution as K independent normally distributed random variables { U u, i > j } each with mean 0 and

n 2

with variance of U 0 as *p q p j i / ( p i j + p j i ) 3. * Also we know that *(1/n){(n~j/fl2)+( * JflYo)} and (l/n)
{(n~Jct 2) + *( n j J 6 2 ) ) * converge almost surely to 1/var(Uij).

Therefore, it follows that under Ho,

**1 ** **U7" ** **1 **

To1 ~ E var(U,j---~ '~ - E var

*i>j * *i>j *

( U u ~ ( U , J v 0) 2
**1 **

= i~j var (Uo) (Uu ^ 0)2. (3.4)

The proof of the following theorem follows from (3.4) and Theorem 5.3.1 of Robertson et al. (1988).

*H.E. Barmi, S.C. Kochar / Statistics & Probability Letters 22 (1995.) 167-173 * 171

**T h e o r e m ** 3.1. *Under H o , f o r any real number t, *we have

*x ( K ~ 1 * *2 *
l i m , - ~ p r ( T o , >~ t ) : / ~ o ~ / )~--~ pr(z, >~t),
*where Z ~ =- O. *

Using this result, the p-value of the asymptotic test based on To1 can be easily obtained. Table 5.3.1 of Robertson et al. (1988) gives the values of some selected percentiles of this asymptotic distribution.

It is clear from this result that the likelihood ratio test based on large values of the statistic T0~ is asymptotically distribution-free over Ho. M a n y testing procedures involving inequality constraints do not lead to asymptotically similar tests and hence these tests are often conservative over much of the null hypothesis region as is the case with our next problem.

*3.2. Testing *H1 *against *H 2

Now, we consider the problem of testing H1 as a null hypothesis against the alternative H2 of no restrictions on the parameters. The likelihood ratio tests rejects Hx in favour of H2 for small values of

ff(1)~mj(l ^(1) *nji *

I-Is>j( **ij j ** **, - - O i j **

**) **

**)**

**= ** **(3.5) **

A 12 *I-Ii>j(Oij)n,J(1 * *^ n j i *

**- ** **0 o ) **
and the log-likelihood ratio is

T12 = - 21nA12

*.* *2 ~, rnijlnOij + njiln(1 .* *.* *.* *Oij) .* *nijlnOti 1) * *njiln( 1 * *Oij^(1))l. *

*i>j *

Again expanding ln/91~ ) about /~o and ln(1 **- ** /~(1)) ~j, about 1 - / ~ o , and using Taylor's expansion with
a second-degree remainder, one obtains

712 = ~, *V n i j * *nji-] ^ * ~(1))2

, > , + ~/~J (0i' - -'i "

*i>jLcq j *

^{+ }*( O i j - ½) ^*

*0*(3.6)

where *~ij *and *flij * are random variables converging almost surely to *pq/(pq + pj~) *and

*Pji/(Pij q-Pji), *

respectively. Since under H1, *Pq/(Pij + Pyi) >1 ½, *one can conclude that

*(Uo ^ * 0)2 (3.7)

T12 ~ ~ var(Uo ) ,
*i > j, PU = PJi *

where

*Uij's *

^{a r e }as defined earlier.

The power function of the T12 is not constant as a function of P as P ranges over H 1. Thus, the significance
level of the test which rejects Hx in favour of H2 for values of/'12 at least as large as t would be given by
*SUpp~H, prp(T12 >>-t), *where prp(T12 t> t) is the probability that ?'12/> t when P is the *true * matrix of
parameter values. Finding this supremum is difficult for finite samples. However, we see from (3.7) that the
configuration Ho : *p~j = Pji, Yi > j *is asymptotically least favourable for this test. This result is formally stated
in the following theorem.

172 *H.E. Barmi, S.C. Kochar / Statistics & Probability Letters 22 (1995) 167-173 *

**Theorem 3.2. **

*l f P E HI, then for any real number t, * *[ M \ 1 *

*lim.-.~ pry(T12 >~ t ) = l~o~ 1 )~-~ pr(~0 /> t),*

^{2 }*where X 2 - 0 and M = eardinal {(i,j), i *

> j : *Pij = Pji}. Moreover, when P E HI, * */ K \ 1 *

^{2 }l i m . ~ p r e ( T x 2 ~> t ) ~ < t ~ ° ~ l ) f f p r ( ~ t 1> t). (3.8) In addition to providing an upper bound on the type 1 error probability, Theorem 3.2 gives a method for investigating the behaviour of l i m . ~ pre(T12/> t) for various values of P satisfying H I . For example, for P such that Po > PJ~, for all i > j , we have l i m . ~ prp(T12 >/t) = 0.

**4. A simulation study and an example **

*4.1. Simulations *

In this section, with the help of a simulation study, we compare the power of our restricted likelihood ratio test based on Tol with the usual unrestricted chi-square test as proposed by Bowker (1948). For this purpose, we consider the following model:

*t O~zij , * *i >j, *

*Po = * *~u, * *i =j, *

(2--0)nij,

*i < j, *

where 0 < 0 < 2 and
*~zij = Tz ji = ( ki ) (~ )pi + J(1-- p)2k- i- J ; *

*0 <~ i,j *

~< k, 0 < p < 1. The case 0 = 1 corresponds to Ho and HI holds if and only if0 > 1. Based on 5000
samples each of size 500 generated from the above distribution with k = 3, p = 0.5, and using the asymptotic
critical values, we report in Table 1, the simulated powers of these two tests.
It is clear from the above table that the restricted likelihood ratio test performs better than the unrestricted chi-square test. We expect similar results for the other alternatives too.

Example. To illustrate our testing procedures with a real life problem, we consider some rather famous data from Stuart (1953) concerning the unaided distance vision of 7477 women aged 30-39 employed in Royal Ordnance factories from 1943 to 1946. The column variable X1 is the right eye grade and the row variable X2 is the left eye grade. The categories are ordered from lowest to highest. The data are represented in Table 2.

We would like to test the null hypothesis Ho of bivariate symmetry that the vision of both the eyes is the same against the alternative that the right eye has better vision than the left eye (better in the sense of joint likelihood ratio ordering). For testing H0 against H1, the value of the test statistic To1 is 19.1492 giving an asymptotic p-value of less than 0.001. For testing H x vs. H2, the p-value of the test statistic T~ 2 (which is 0.1) is 0.9468. Thus, we have a strong evidence to conclude that the vision of right eye is significantly better than of left eye. We also computed the value of the usual log-likelihood ratio statistic for testing Ho against H2. Its value of 19.2492 which gives us a p-value of 0.0038 using chi-square distribution with 6 degrees of freedom.

A similar conclusion was reached by McCullagh (1978).

*H.E. Barmi, S.C. Kochar / Statistics & Probability Letters 22 (1995) 167-173 *
Table 1

Simulated powers of To1 and the usual chi-square test

173

0 1 1.03 1.06 1.09 1.12 1.15 1.18 1.21 1.24 1.27 1.30

Tox 0.048 0 . 1 1 8 0 . 2 2 3 0 . 3 7 4 0 . 5 6 5 0 . 7 6 3 0 . 8 8 6 0 . 9 6 0 0 . 9 9 0 0.991 1.00 Chi-square 0.046 0 . 0 6 5 0 . 1 0 5 0 . 1 7 2 0 . 3 2 4 0 . 5 0 4 0 . 7 0 3 0 . 8 4 5 0 . 9 4 3 0 . 9 8 3 0.997

Table 2

Unaided distance vision of 7477 women aged 30-39 employed in Royal Ordnance factories from 1943 to 1946

Right eye

Lowest Third S e c o n d Highest

Left eye grade grade grade grade Totals

Lowest grade 492 205 78 66 841

Third grade 179 1772 432 124 2507

Second grade 82 362 1512 266 2222

Higest grade 36 117 234 1520 1907

Totals 789 2456 2256 1976 7444

**5. Conclusions **

I n this p a p e r we have d e v e l o p e d a n a s y m p t o t i c a l l y d i s t r i b u t i o n - f r e e test for testing b i v a r i a t e s y m m e t r y a g a i n s t a o n e - s i d e d a l t e r n a t i v e in a s q u a r e c o n t i n g e n c y table. T a b l e s for the a s y m p t o t i c critical values a l r e a d y exist in the l i t e r a t u r e a n d it is also easy to find the p-values of the p r o p o s e d test. Like o t h e r n o n p a r a m e t r i c tests, the tests p r o p o s e d here c a n be m e a n i n g f u l l y used for p r e l i m i n a r y analysis. If the null hypothesis of b i v a r i a t e s y m m e t r y is rejected a g a i n s t o n e - s i d e d alternative, o n e c a n go in for a m o r e detailed analysis of the p r o b l e m u s i n g a p p r o p r i a t e p a r a m e t r i c m o d e l s as d e v e l o p e d b y M c C u l l a g h (1977) a n d others.

**Acknowledgments **

This w o r k was carried o u t w h e n S u b h a s h K o c h a r was visiting the U n i v e r s i t y of I o w a o n leave from I.S.I.

N e w D e l h i a n d H a m m o u El B a r m i was a g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t at the same place. T h e a u t h o r s are grateful to Professors T i m R o b e r t s o n a n d R i c h a r d D y k s t r a for fruitful discussions o n this a n d o t h e r related problems.

**References **

Bowker, A. (1948), A test for symmetry in contingency tables, J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 43, 572-574.

McCullagh, P. (1977), A logistic model for pair comparisons with ordered categorical data, Biometrika 64, 449-453.

McCullagh, P. (1978), A class of parametric models for the analysis of square contingency tables with ordered categories, *Biometrika 65, *
413-418.

Robertson, T., F.T. Wright, and R.L. Dykstra, (1988), *Order Restricted Statistical Inference (Wiley, New York). *

Serfling, R.J. (1980), Approximation Theorems of Mathematical Statistics (Wiley, New York).

Shanthikumar, J.G. and D.D. Yao (1991), Bivariate characterization of some stochastic order relations, *Adv. AppL Probab. *23, 642-659.

Stuart, A. (1953), The estimation and comparison of strength of association in contingency tables, Biometrika 40, 105-110.