FACTORS AFFECTING THE OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATIONS OF HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOL
STUDENTS OF DELHI
JAG SHANKER GAUR
i; t t' •1 4
THESIS SUBMITTED TO iHEIRDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, DELHI IN FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY 1973
The writer is indebted to a number of persons and agencies for help on this project. They include the National Council of Educational Research and Training, New Delhi and the Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, as well as the- United States Educational Foundation in India. They also include the personnel of the Data Processing and Educational Survey Unit of the N.C.E.R.T., school authorities of the Department of Education, Delhi Administration and students of the various schools included in the sample of the study.
A special debt is owed to Dr.(Mrs) Purnima Mathur of I.I.T, Delhi for her able guidance, encouragement and extending to me all possible facilities to carry out this work.
To these and to-other colleagues and individuals such as Dr. Shib K. Mitre, Prof. S.V.C. Aiya, Dr. Perin H. Mehta, Dr, A.B.L. Srivastava, Dr, R.K. Mathur,
Dr. S.D. Kapoor and Dr. Don Rugh, who have given valuable cooperation the writer extends his grateful thanks.
JAG SHANKER GAUR.
The present study was carried out to study the factors affecting the occupational aspiration of High School students of Delhi. Studies by Haller and Miller (1953), Kahl (1957) and others show the differential prestige.of occupation as an indicator of the level of occupational aspiration. Certain other factors such as intelligence, socio-economic status and academic performance seem to be associated with the
level of occupational aspiration of High School students as is evident fromthe findings by Muthayya (1962),
Harnett (1959). Harrison (1968), Foster (1970), Styles and Marvalence (1970) and others.
Bight independent hypotheses were framed. The first hypothesis was:
There will be significant difference among the levels of occupational aspiration of the bright and the backward higher secondary school students.
The results indicate that there exists a significant difference between the levels of occupational aspiration of the 'Superior' and 'Backward'. Results however do
not indicate a significant difference between the 'Superior' and the 'Average'.
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The second hypothesis was:
There will be no significant difference between the levels of occupational aspiration of boys and girls studying in the higher secondary class of Delhi schools.
The results indicate that the two groups of individuals do not differ significantly in relation to their occupational aspiration levels.
The third hypothesis was:
There will be significant difference between the levels of occupational aspiration of the higher secondary school students in the',three different types of schools such as (1) Public (2) Private-aided and (3) 'bvernment.
The results indicate a difference between the
occupational aspirations of pupils belonging to the three types of schools - the Public, the Private-aided and
The fourth hypothesis was:
There will be significant difference between the levels of occupational aspiration of the higher secondary school students belonging to eight different categories based on their age.
The results in the first instance indicate a significant relationship between age and the level of occupational aspiration.
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The fifth hypothesis, was:
There will be significant difference among the occupational aspiration levels of the higher secondary school students in Delhi, belonging to the higher and lower socio-economic status groups.
The results indicate a significant relationship between the socio-economic status and the level of occupational aspiration. However, further analysis
showed that the relationship may be misleading, because, by keeping intelligence constant the relationship between the socio-economic status and the level of occupational aspiration becomes non-significant.
The sixth hypothesis was:
There will be significant difference among the levels of occupational aspiration of the higher secondary students and school marks.
The results indicate a significant relationship between the school marks and the level of occupational aspiration.
The seventh hypothesis was:
There will be significant difference among the levels of occupational aspiration of the higher secondary school students belonging to the six different
organizational climate types.
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The results indicate that the relationship between the organizational climate of an institution and the level of occupational aspiration is not significant.
The eighth hypothesis was:
There will be significant difference between the 'high' and the 'low' aspiring higher secondary school
students in their scores on the personality characteristics of outgoing, intelligent, emotional maturity, excitable,
assertive, enthusiastic, conscientious, socially bold, dependent, doubting, apprehensive, resourceful, controlled and Tense.
The results derived on the basis of the significance of the difference in the means of the high and the low
aspirers for each of the fourteen personality traits have been reported.
Factor analysis obtained for boys and girls reveal two clearly recognised factors: one running positively through the tests of intelligence, O.A.S.,
S.B.S.,school marks and certain personality characteristics like social boldness, controlled and overactivity.
The other factor runs through the variables of age, overactivity, dependence, tenseness and worried.
Standardised regression weights of occupational aspiration scores on various other independent variables have been reported.
Recommendations for further research were made on the basis of the above mentioned study.
TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER
EXPOSITION OF THE THEORY UNDERLYING THE INVESTIGATION Background of the Conceptual Development
• Or • •
6 6 B. Nature of Level of Aspirations • • • •
C. Theory underlying the Studies by Haller and Miller
• • • • 9
III FACTORS RELATED TO OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION
Part I ... 12
Factors Related to Occupational 12 Aspiration
Sex 0600 13
Type of School Oita& 14
Intelligence • • • 14
Age • • * • 15
Socio-economic Status 11, • a • 15
School Marks • • • 16
Organizational-Cligate • • • • 17
Personality Factors • • • AI 17
Part II • • • 18
Development of Hypotheses • • • • 18 Hypothesis one • .. * 18
Hypothesis Two • • • 19
Hypothesis Three * • • . 20
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Hypothesis Four 21
Hypothesis Five 21
Hypothesis Six 22
Hypothesis Seven 22
Hypothesis Eight 213
IV VARIABLES, INSTRUMENTS, AND 24 DESIGN OF STUDY
Part I Variables and Instruments .... 24 1. Cattellls Culture - fair •••• 24
2. Socio - economic Status Scale • ■•• . 25
3. The occupational Aspiration •••• 26 Scale (O.A.S.)
High School Personality 27 Questionnaire (H.S.P.Q)
Organizational Climate •••• 30
Description Questionnaire (0.C.D.Q.)
Part II The Design of Study *000 33
Sample 00414 33
Procedure .... 34
Statistical Analysis ••••1 34 V STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE ••• • 35
OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION SCALE
Coefficient of Concordance •••• 42 Administration of adapted OAS
on students • 6•411 42
Scoring of the OAS answersheets 42