Hospitality Studies, HNB Garhwal University, Uttarakhand Paper 12: Tourism Planning and Sustainable Development Module 05: Policy making bodies in India (2)QUADRANT-I 1

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Principal Investigator Prof. S. P. Bansal,

Vice Chancellor, Indira Gandhi University, Rewari

Co-Principal Investigator Dr. Prashant K. Gautam,

Director, UIHTM, Panjab University, Chandigarh

Paper Coordinator Dr. Prashant K. Gautam,

Director, UIHTM, Panjab University, Chandigarh

Paper Co-Coordinator Dr. Jaswinder Sharma,

Assistant Professor UIHTM, Panjab University Chandigarh

Content Writer Mr. Shashank Anand,

School of Hospitality Management

RIMT University, Mandi Gobindgarh, Punjab

Content Reviewer Prof. S.C. Bagri,

Director, Centre for Mountain Tourism & Hospitality Studies, HNB Garhwal University, Uttarakhand Paper 12: Tourism Planning and Sustainable Development

Module 05: Policy making bodies in India


QUADRANT-I 1. Learning Objectives:

After completing this module, students you will be able to:

 Learn about the meaning of policy, tourism policy ITEMS DESCRIPTION OF MODULE Subject Name Tourism & Hospitality

Paper Name Tourism Planning and Sustainable Development Module Title Policy making bodies In India

Module Id Module No - 05

Pre- Requisites Knowledge about policy formulation and bodies in policy formulation

Objectives To study meaning of policy and different bodies involved in the process of policy formulation

Keywords Policy, National level, Bodies

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Learning Outcome

2. Introduction

3. Policy formulation bodies in India

3.1 Ministry of Tourism, Government of India 3.2 Planning Commission of India

3.3 The National Development Council 3.4 Inter State Council

4. Summary


 Know about the components of tourism policy formulation

 Know about the different Bodies involved in the process of policy formulation

 Understand the key factors in the process at national level

2. Introduction

Policy formulating is the major function of the government. Meanwhile its preparation is a difficult and vigorous procedure, no hypothetical model is acceptable to describe the policy creation entirely. “According to Vehezkel Dror public policy making is a complex, dynamic process whose components make different contributions to it. It decides major guidelines for action directed at the future, mainly by the governmental organs. These guidelines (policies) formally aim at achieving what is in the public interest by the best possible means Public policy can be authoritative allocation of values by the political system, a slight variation from the previous or existing policy, equilibrium reached out of the competing group struggle, a rational choice or the preference of the governing elite. It can also be a combination of these processes”. In the course of policy formulation different organisations partake indirectly or directly. The function of the administrative bodies is straight whereas the function of the non-governmental agencies is secondary.

Few of the organization: which be the part in policy making are judiciary, boards and commissions mass media, legislature, cabinet, state governments, civil servants, pressure groups, political parties and public. It is important to assess the responsibility of all the organisations in the process of forming an informative policy for the Country.

Legislature: In a democratic government, the function of the legislature is the formulation of the policy. meanwhile, they look at the various problems occurring and accordingly prepare the policies. Legislation plays a crucial role in the 20th century, despite the fact they have different functions. the members of the ruling parties with the majority of seats start pushing on to many policies initiatives, and are usually prepared by the Cabinet also after discussions with the concerned is seen that there is a great level of concentration of policy initiatives and policy making.


Cabinet: In a democratic system, it is legal job pf the cabinet to agree to different policies, which are to be presented before the council for there approval Cabinet members are policy makers. The Prime minister powers have increased inside the cabinet in the modern scenario

The Prime minister uses strong decisions over certain possible policies if majority of the members are with him. same is the situation at state level with the Chief minister. The advisory role is played by the Cabinet and cabinet committees whereas the final decisions are taken by the Prime minister

State Governments: In Federal state like India, both Central and State government play a crucial role in contribution in the policy formulation. The state government make policies and make certain rules for the things stated concurrent lists and state lists. At state level the policies are prepared by the Chief minister with the ministers in guidance and other advisory committees.

Commission or Expert committees: (ad hoc)

For the successful and effective policy formulation, separately ad hoc committee is formed instead of having permanent Boards and commissions, so that suggestions can be taken and administrative improvements can be done in policy formulation. these recommendations and suggestions help in forming a successful policy for the development of the different states and at national level.

Bureaucracy: Government employees at the highest organisational level sometimes helps the ministers in the process of policy formulation, they are already employed in various public services/departments but are helping the ministers in the formulating of policy and carry out their evaluations or assessments. these people are more efficient and effective here in the process of policy formulation than the formal explanation of their duties suggest. Bureaucrats are important part of policy formulation at National and State level.


Political Parties: Similarly, as the bureaucrats, political parties also exist and are important part of policy making process, especially in the western countries democratic parties play a significant role in the various policy making decisions, but there is no such conformation in the Indian context. generally political parties show case their values, policies, programmes and goals to the societies with an idea to gain their support. parties are fully involved in the formulation of tourism policies and also offer a mechanism to people by which they can add in the public activities which creates a makeup to the effect of policy formulation.

3. Policy formulation Bodies in India

There are many bodies/organisations involved in the process of Policy formulation in the country, each organisation aims at framing successful and effective policy for the development and expansion of tourism across all parts/regions of the country. Policies are framed for the benefit of the residents of the country, with the vision to develop tourism as a major source for the overall benefits both socio-cultural and economic. following are the organisations/Bodies involved in tourism Policy formulation.

3.1 Ministry of Tourism, Government of India

The Ministry of Tourism, Government of India is the principal organization involved in the the creation of national policies and programmes and also looks after for the co- ordination of actions of different Central Government Organisations, State Governments/UTs and the Private Sector organisations for the expansion and publicity of tourism in the country. This Ministry is lead by the Union Minister of State for Tourism.

The governmental head of the Ministry is the Secretary (Tourism). The Secretary also works as the Director General (DG) Tourism. The office of the Director General of Tourism {now combined with the office of Secretary (Tourism) offers management guidelines for the execution of different plans and policies. Directorate General of Tourism has a field foundation of 20 offices throughout the country and 14 offices outside India and one sub-ordinate workplace/project i.e. Indian Institute of Skiing and


Mountaineering (IISM)/ Gulmarg Winter Sports Project. The foreign offices are mainly liable for tourism advertising and promotion in their particular areas and the field offices in India are liable for delivering info facility to tourists travelling around the country and to look after the growth of field projects. The actions of IISM/GWSP have now been renewed and different Ski and other development programmes are being organised or conducted in the J&K valley.

The Ministry of Tourism has under its concern a public sector organisation, the India Tourism Development Corporation and the above self-governing institutions:

Indian Institute of Tourism and Travel Management (IITTM)

National Institute of Water Sports (NIWS)

National Council for Hotel Management and Catering Technology (NCHMCT)

The Institutes of Hotel Management.

Role of Ministry of Tourism Government of India

 Development and formulation of Policies and programs.

 Providing Incentives plans for tourism projects.

 External Assistance to major tourism development projects.

 Training and Development of workforce in order to fulfill the industries requirement.

 Promotion & Marketing both in India and abroad.

 Providing financial assistance for for Investment in tourism projects.

 Planning and Co-ordination with other Departments, Ministries, State/UT Governments for the development of tourism sector in India.

 Setting up of rules & regulation or minimum Standards and Guidelines.

 Focus on developing Infrastructure & enhancing Product Development.

 Creation of infrastructure and facilities like institutes and training centers for HR Development


 Monitoring, Evaluation, Research, Analysis on tourism industry

 Focused towards International Co-operation and External Assistance and collaborations with foreign technical organizations

 Bilateral Agreements with other nations for the growth of tourism.

 Providing Budget and co-ordination and related matters for the development of tourism.

 Assist in the making of policies by offering response from the field offices all over the globe.

 Examining of Plan Projects and supporting in the Plan formulation for expansion of the industry

 Coordinating with the actions of field offices and their management

 Giving authorization and categorization of hotels and restaurants.

 Giving authorization of travel agents, tourist transport operators and Inbound tour operators etc.

 Infrastructure Development throughout the various destinations in the country.

 Tourist facilitation and information.

 Hospitality programs.

 Conventions & conferences.

3.2 Planning commission of India

Tourism development in India began quite late with the first tourism policy being declared by the Government of India in year November, 1982. tourism was known as an industry by the Planning Commission of India in the year June, 1982. In the year July, 1986 the Planning Commission of India established the National Committee on Tourism with the aim to frame plans for the tourism sector. The government's plans of integrating a planned tourism sector in India moved an extended way in encouraging Indian tourism.

In the year May, 1992 the National Action Plan for tourism was declared. The goals of this milestone plan for tourism development in India were:


To develop the budget group domestic tourism

To grow the tourist regions both economically and socially

Conservation of the national heritage and the environment of the country

To encourage the movement of foreign tourists in the country

To progress India’s share in the world tourism

To exhilarate chances for job opportunities in the tourism sector:

India tourism development amplified with the 7th five-year plan in India (1985-1989).

The different polices revived by the 7th plan for tourism planning in India are:

To motivate uncompromisingly domestic tourism movement in the country

Focused more on constructing extra beach resorts

Aimed at conducting/organising conferences, trekking, conferences, and winter sports so that diverse choices are presented to the international tourists

These polices of the 7th five-year plan provided an increase to the tourism planning India.

For furthermore growth of tourism in India, tourism planning in India, the eighth five- year plan (1992- 1997) stated that the private sector must expand its contribution in the tourism sector. The different polices supported by the 8th plan for tourism planning in the

country are:

Development of different tourist’s places in the country

Focused on developing winter sports, wildlife tourism and beach resorts.

Restoration and preservation of national heritage in the country

Providing tourist’s centres with economical type of accommodation

Tourism planning in India has improved by up and downs in the last past years and the government and Department of Tourism have to make non-stop plans and policies to guarantee that tourism planning in India can take the Indian tourism industry to larger heights on a sustainable base.


The National Institution for Transforming India is a Government of India plan think-tank founded by the Narendra Modi government to substitute the Planning Commission which charted the top-down model. The specified aims for NITI Aayog's formation is to nurture participation and contribution in the fiscal policy-making technique by the State Governments of India. The stress is on bottom-up approach and make the country to move near to cooperative federalism.

3.3 The National Development Council

The national Development council was established in the year August 1952, also called as the Rashtriya Vikas Parishad. NDC is a head body for decision making and planning on the growth and development matters in the country. the main role of the body is to strengthen and mobilize the resources and efforts of the nation in support of planning and also focuses on promotion of common economic policies in all important stages, also ensures and a keep a check on rapid and balanced growth and expansion in all the parts/regions of the country. The National Development Council also makes sure in the process of Indian growth and planning. It provides chances to both the Union minister s and the Chief ministers of the States to discuss on the different strategies at important stages of their policy making. The policies and plans are finally sanctioned or approved at their gathering/meetings after the accomplishment and before they are finally presented in the Parliament and the State legislatures.

In this manner the national effectiveness of the policies and plans is highlighted. The Council also studies economic and social programs disturbing the country from view point of the citizens of the country, so that where needed standardisation may be safe. In different ways, it gives a clue to the Country on wide-ranging problems of policy and encourages joint philosophy and mutual act on problems of national importance. The National Development Council called its first meeting in the year November 1952.


Meetings normally last for two days. The first meeting focused on the Draft Report of the First Five-Year Plan. The various phases of the Second Five-Year Plan were studied at four meetings starting from May 1955, at which the Plan-frame and provisional structure were studied, and ending in May 1956, at which the final report was accepted. The Council studied propositions linking to the Third Five-Year Plan at six meetings in March, April, September 1960 and January, March and May 1961. At the initial meetings, patterns of development, financial resources and divisions to different sectors were pondered on the basis of papers circulated by the Commission. The Draft Outline was sanctioned at the meeting of September 2 1960 and the Report of the Third Plan in May 1961. Other gatherings contemplated progress report on land reforms, co-operative policy, Plans, agriculture problems, problems relating to community development etc. In vision of the importance of agriculture production and price policy, two special gatherings of National Development Council were held to report these questions. The importance of the issues that are placed before the Council from time to time is thus clear. It may be stated that between 1955 and 1958 for about three years, a standing committee consisting of 9 to 12 States had been created by the National Development Council. This body held together six meetings. In 1958, the Standing Committee was dropped as, under the reform of States, the total number of States had been condensed and there was no requirement for a minor body.

Objectives and Functions of NDC

 To protected support of all the states in the implementation of the plan in different sectors

 Focus on strengthening and activating the work and resources of the country in the support of the Policies and plans

 Promotion of the mutual economic plans and policies in all important domains

 Keep a check and ensure there is stable and fast growth in all the parts of the country.

 Prescribe guidelines for the preparation of The national plans and policies plus the evaluation of the resources available for the Plan.

 To study the National Plan as prepared by the NITI Aayog.


 Creating an evaluation of the resources that are essential for executing the Plan and to recommend actions for strengthening the plans.

 Focus on study principal questions of social and economic program disturbing national development.

 Review the functioning of the Plan on regular time intervals and to advise such actions which are essential for accomplishing the goals and objectives fixed out in the National Plan.

 Giving recommendation actions for accomplishment of the goals and objectives fixed out in the national Plan.

3.4 Inter State Council

The Inter State Council is an Indian constitutional organisation set up on the basis of provisions in Article 263 of the Constitution of India. The organisation was established by a Presidential Order dated on 28 May 1990 on suggestion of Sarkaria Commission.

The Council is designed for discussing or examining policies, subjects of common interest, and disputes amongst the different states of the country.

Article 263 of the Indian Constitution offers for formation of Inter State Council (ISC). It is not a permanent organisation. It can be formed 'at any time' if it shows to the President that the public interests would be functioned by the formation of such a type of Council.

Yet, with increasing gap amongst centre and states.

The main functions of ISC

 Works on solving clash of interest amongst center and states by discussion and mutual act.

 ISC can issue a consent on part of Governor.

 Also can choose upon the usage of article 356 and other such constitutional matter

 Other objections of states like flowing of items from state to concurrent list can be expressed.

 Work on bridging the trust shortage among the center and states.


 Make decisions on deciding the on decentralization of funds.

 ISC is also a stage for the health discussions and conversation.

 Judiciary can choose on problems disturbing center-state affairs on a case to case basis. It marks in important directorial and financial cost as in the case of recent Uttarakhand and Arunachal Pradesh crunch. ISC can stretch a agreement on such problems before so that disaster like circumstances does not occur.

 Center has selected powers to exchange with foreign government and funding agencies. ISC will offer a proposal to bring states on board too.

 Promotion of healthy contest amongst states.

4. Summary

Every industry formulates certain types of policies for the development and growth of that industry, similarly tourism industry also frames certain policies and plans for the development and expansion of the industry, there are various government and private bodies/organisation involved in the process of Policy formulation viz. Ministry of Tourism, Government of India, Planning commission of India (NITI Aayog), The National Development Council and The Inter State council. these bodies or organisation are actively involved in forming/designing different policies and plans for the effective economic and societal development through tourism. These organisations help in decision making process, examining and discussion on policies, and solve disputes amongst the centre and states. Policies are framed on regular basis by these organisations in order to accelerate the growth of the industry. Policies are framed with the aim to achieve certain goals and targets or accomplish certain objectives. Effective policy and efficient policy makers play an significant part in the growth and growth of the industry which further sets some milestones and standards. Policy formulating is the major function of the government bodies/organisations. meanwhile its formulation is a problematic and strong procedure. Few of the organization: which are the involved in policy formulating are judiciary, boards and commissions, mass media, legislature, cabinet, state governments, civil servants, , pressure groups, political parties and public. It


is important to measure the accountability of all the organisations in the process of making an informative policy for the Country.




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