A STUDY OF FUZZY CONTINUOUS MAPPINGS
A thesis is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree
of
Master of Science in Mathematics by
Ashutosh Agrawal 411ma5054
Under the supervision of
Dr. Akrur Behera
Department of Mathematics National Institute of technology
Rourkela, 769008
May 2016
Acknowledgement
I deem it a privilege and honor to have worked in association under Dr. Akrur Behera, Professor in the Department of mathematics, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela. I express my deep sense of gratitude and indebtedness to him for guiding me throughout the project work.
I thank all faculty members of the Department of Mathematics who have always inspired me to work hard and helped me to learn new concepts during our stay at NIT Rourkela. I would like to thanks my parents for their unconditional love and support. They have supported me in every situation. I am grateful for their support.
Finally I would like to thank all my friends for their support and the great almighty to shower his blessing on us.
Date: May, 2016 Ashutosh Agrawal Place: NIT Rourkela Roll no: 411ma5054 Department of Mathematics,
NIT Rourkela, Odisha
Declaration
I hereby certify that the work which is being presented in the report entitled “A Study of Fuzzy Continuous Mappings” in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Master of Science, submitted to the Department of Mathematics, National Institute of
Technology Rourkela is a review work carried out under the supervision of Dr. Akrur Behera.
The matter embodied in this report has not been submitted by me for the award of any other degree.
(Ashutosh Agrawal) Roll No.411MA5054
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ROURKELA ROURKELA, ODISHA
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the thesis entitled “A Study of Fuzzy Continuous Mappings” submitted by Ashutosh agrawal (Roll No: 411MA5054) in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Mathematics at the National Institute of Technology Rourkela is an authentic work carried out by him during final year Project under my supervision andnguidance.
Date: May, 2016 Dr. Akrur Behera Department of Mathematics NIT Rourkela
Abstract
The paperndeals with the conceptnof semicompactness in thengeneralized setting of a
fuzzyntopological space. We achievena number of characterizationsnof a fuzzynsemicompact space. The notionnof semicompactness is furthernextended to arbitrary fuzzyntopological sets.
Such fuzzynsets are formulated inndifferent ways and a fewnpertinent properties are discussed.
Finallynwe compare semicompact fuzzynsets with some ofnthe existing types ofncompactlike fuzzynsets. We ultimately shownthat so far as thenmutual relationships among diﬀerentnexisting allied classes of fuzzynsets are concerned, thenclass of semicompact fuzzynsets occupies a naturalnposition in the hierarchy. Thenpurpose of this papernis to introduce thenconcepts of semi*connectednspaces, semi*compactnspaces. We investigate theirnbasic properties. We alsondiscuss their relationship withnalready existing concepts.
Introduction
Barring paracompactness, therenexists in the literature, annumber of allied formsnof compactness studiednin a classical fuzzyntopological space. Among these, thenmost widely studiedncompactlike covering properties arenalmost compactness ornquasi Hclosedness, nearncompactness, Sclosedness, andnsemicompactness. The thoroughninvestigations and the applicationalnaspects of these coveringnproperties have prompted topologistsnto generalize these conceptsn(with the exceptionnof semicompactness) to fuzzynsetting. In this paper, some of interestingnproperties of fuzzy semicompactnessnare investigated. Ournintention here is to go intonsome details towardsncharacterizations of semicompactnessnfor a fts. These
characterizationsnare eﬀected with thenhelp of fuzzynsets, preﬁlterbases and similarnother concepts, which comprisenthe deliberation in thennext section.Compactnessnis one of thenmost important, useful and fundamentalnconcepts in fuzzy topology. Thenpurpose of this papernis to introducenthe concepts of semi*connectednspaces, semi*compact spaces. Weninvestigate their basicnproperties. We alsondiscuss their relationship withnalready existingnconcepts.
Contents
1. Fuzzy topological spaces 1.1 Fuzzy topological spaces 1.2 Basis and subbasis
1.3 Closure and interior for FTS 1.4 Neighborhood
1.5 Fuzzy Continuous Maps
2. Generalized locally closed sets and GLCcontinuous function 2.1 Fuzzy gclosed sets
2.2 Fuzzy gopen sets
2.3 Fuzzy locally closed sets 2.4 Fuzzy glocally closed sets 2.5 Fuzzy GLC*
2.6 Fuzzy GLC**
2.7 Fuzzy generalized locally closed functions
3. Fuzzy semicompact spaces
4. Fuzzy semicompact sets
5. Semi*connectedness in Fuzzy Topological Spaces 6. Fuzzy weakly compact spaces
7. References
Chapter 1
1. Fuzzy Topological spaces
1.1 A topological space is an ordered pair (X , τ), where X is a set and τ is a collection of subsets ofX , satisfying the following axioms
1. The empty set and X it self belongs to τ.
2. Any (finite or infinite) union of members of τ still belongs to τ.
3. The intersection of any finite number of members of τ still belongs to τ.
Definition: A fuzzy topology on a set X is a collection of fuzzy sets in X such that:
1. 0,1 ,
2. ,
3. ∀ (_{𝑖})_{𝑖∈𝐼} ∈⇒ _{𝑖∈𝐼}(_{𝑖}) ∈;
is called as a fuzzy topology for X , and the pair (X,)is a fuzzy topological space, or FTS in short. Every member of is called a Topen fuzzy set. Fuzzy sets of the form 1 − µ, where µ is an open fuzzy set, are called closed fuzzy sets.
Examples of fuzzy topologies:
Any topology on a set X (subsets are identified with their characteristic functions).
The indiscrete fuzzy topology {0, 1} on a set X (= indiscrete topology onX ).
The discrete fuzzy topology on X containing all fuzzy sets inX .
The collection of all crisp fuzzy sets in X (= discrete topology onX ).
The collection of all constant fuzzy sets inX .
The intersections of any family of fuzzy topologies on a setX .
1.2 Base and subbase for FTS:
Definition: A base for a fuzzy topological space(X,) is a sub collection of τ such that each member A of τ can be written asV_{j}_{}_{A}A_{j}, where eachA_{j} .
Definition: A subbase for a fuzzy topological space(X,) is a sub collection S of τ such that the collection of infimum of finite subfamilies of S forms a base for(X,).
Definition: Let (X,) be an FTS. Suppose A is any subset ofX . Then (A,_{A}) is called a fuzzy subspace of(X,),
Where,
1. _{A} {B_{A}:B}, 2. B{(x,_{B}(x)):xX, 3. B_{A} {(x,_{B}_{/}_{A}(x)):xA}.
Definition: A fuzzy point 𝐿 in 𝑋 is a special fuzzy set with membership function defined by
𝐿(𝑥) = {
𝜇 ∀ 𝑥 = 𝑦 0 ∀ 𝑥 ≠ 𝑦
Where, 0 < 𝜇 ≤ 1.
𝐿 is said to have support y, value 𝜇 and is denoted by P_{y}^{}or 𝑃(𝑦, 𝜇) .
Let A be a fuzzy set inX , thenP_{y}^{} A A(y). In particular,
P y z,
P_{y} _{z} .
A fuzzy point P_{y}^{} is said to be in A, denoted by
Py ∈ A ⇔nα ≤ A(y).
The complement of the fuzzy point P_{x}^{}is denoted either by P_{x}^{}^{}^{1} or by(P_{x}^{})^{c}.
Definition: The fuzzy point P_{x}^{}is said to be contained in a fuzzy set A, or to belong to A, denoted by P_{x}^{}∈ A if and only if λ < A(x).
Every fuzzy set A can be expressed as the union of all the fuzzy points which belong to A. That is, if A(x) is not zero for x ∈X , then A(x) = sup {λ:P_{x}^{}, 0 < λ ≤ A(x)}.
Definition: Two fuzzy sets A, B in X are said to be intersecting if and only if there exists a point x ∈ X such that (A ∧ B)(x) 0. For such a case, we say that A and B intersect at x. Let A, B ∈ IX . Then A = B if and only if P ∈ A ⇔ P ∈ B for every fuzzy point P in X .
1.3 Closure and Interior of fuzzy sets
Definition: The closure Aand the interior A^{0}of a fuzzy set A ofX are defined as }
, :
inf{
K A K K^{c} A
} , :
0 sup{O O AO
A
1.4 Neighborhood
Definition: A fuzzy point P_{x}^{}is said to be quasicoincident with A, denoted byP_{x}^{}qA, if and only if λ >A^{c}(x), or λ + A(x) > 1.
Proposition: Let f be a function from X to Y. Let P be a fuzzy point of X, A be a fuzzy set in X and B be a fuzzy set in Y. Then we have:
1. If f(P)_{q}B,then P_{q}f ^{}^{1}(B).
2. If P_{q}A,then f(P)_{q} f(A).
3. P f ^{}^{1}(B), if f(P)B. 4. f(P) f(A),if PA.
1.5 Fuzzy Continuous Map
Definition: Given fuzzy topological space (X,)and (Y,), a function f :X Y is fuzzy continuous if the inverse image under f of any open fuzzy set in Y is an open fuzzy set in X ; that is if f^{}^{1}() whenever .
Proposition:
(a) The identity id_{X} :(X,)(X,) on a fuzzy topological space (X,) is fuzzy continuous.
(b) A composition of fuzzy continuous functions is fuzzy continuous.
Proof. (a) ,id_{X}^{}^{1}()id_{X}
(b) Let f :(X,)(Y,)&g:(Y,)(Z,) be fuzzy continuous. For )).
( ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) (
, ^{1} ^{1} ^{1} ^{1}
g f ^{} g f g f f ^{} g f ^{} g^{} g^{}^{1}() sincegis fuzzy continuous, and so (g f)^{}^{1}() f ^{}^{1}(g^{}^{1}()) = f −1 (g −1 (η)) ∈ τ since f is fuzzy continuous.
Chapter 2
2. Generalized locally closed sets and GLCcontinuous function 2.1 Fuzzy GClosed sets
𝑆 ∈ (𝑋, 𝜏) is Fuzzy Gclosed,
⟺ 𝑐𝑙(𝑆) 𝐺,
𝑆 𝐺,
𝐺 is open in (X , ).
2.2 Fuzzy Gopen Sets 𝑆 ∈ (X,) is fuzzy Gopen,
⟺ (𝑋 − 𝑆) is fuzzy gclosed.
2.3 Fuzzy Locally Closed sets 𝑆 ∈ is fuzzy locally closed
⇔ 𝑆 = 𝐺 ∩ 𝐹,
Where, 𝐺 ∈ 𝜏 and 𝐹 is closed in (Χ, )
2.4 Fuzzy GLocally closed sets 𝑆 ∈ (𝑋, 𝜏) is fuzzy Glocally closed
⇔ 𝑆 = 𝐺 ∩ 𝐹,
Where, 𝐺 is fuzzy gopen in (𝑋, 𝜏) 𝐹 is fuzzy gclosed in (𝑋, 𝜏).
2.5 Fuzzy GLC*
𝑆 ∈ (𝑋, 𝜏)
𝑆 ∈ 𝑓𝑢𝑧𝑧𝑦 𝐺𝐿𝐶^{∗}(𝑋, 𝜏)
⇔ 𝑆 = 𝐺 ∩ 𝐹
Where, 𝐺 is fuzzy gopen set of (𝑋, 𝜏) 𝐹 is fuzzyclosed set of (𝑋, 𝜏) 2.6 Fuzzy GLC**
𝑆 ∈ (𝑋, 𝜏)
𝑆 ∈ 𝑓𝑢𝑧𝑧𝑦 𝐺𝐿𝐶^{∗∗}(𝑋, 𝜏)
⇔ 𝑆 = 𝐺 ∩ 𝐹
Where, 𝐺 is fuzzyopen set of (𝑋, 𝜏) 𝐹 is fuzzy gclosed set of (𝑋, 𝜏)
Theorem:
𝑆 ∈ (𝑋, 𝜏)
1. 𝑆 ∈ 𝑓𝑢𝑧𝑧𝑦 𝐺𝐿𝐶^{∗}(𝑋, 𝜏)
2. 𝑆 = 𝑃 ∩ 𝑐𝑙(𝑆) ∀ 𝑓𝑢𝑧𝑧𝑦 gopen 𝑠𝑒𝑡 𝑃 3. 𝑐𝑙(𝑆) − 𝑆 𝑖𝑠 𝑓𝑢𝑧𝑧𝑦 gclosed
4. 𝑆 ∪ 𝑐𝑙(𝑋 − 𝑐𝑙(𝑆))𝑖𝑠 𝑓𝑢𝑧𝑧𝑦 gopen Proposition
𝐴, 𝑍 ∈ (𝑋, 𝜏) 𝐴 ⊂ 𝑍
1. 𝑍 is fuzzy gopen in (𝑋, 𝜏) 𝐴 ∈ 𝐺𝐿𝐶^{∗} (𝑍, 𝜏  𝑍)
⇒ 𝐴 ∈ 𝐺𝐿𝐶^{∗}(𝑋, 𝜏)
2. 𝑍 is fuzzy gclosed in (𝑋, 𝜏) 𝐴 ∈ 𝐺𝐿𝐶^{∗∗}(𝑍, 𝜏  𝑍)
⇒ 𝐴 ∈ 𝐺𝐿𝐶^{∗∗}(𝑋, 𝜏)
3. 𝑍 is fuzzy gclosed and fuzzy gopen in (𝑋, 𝜏) 𝐴 ∈ 𝐺𝐿𝐶(𝑍, 𝜏  𝑍)
⇒ 𝐴 ∈ 𝐺𝐿𝐶(𝑋, 𝜏)
2.7 Fuzzy Generalized Locally Closed Functions:
Fuzzy GLCirresolute:
𝑓: (Χ, ) (𝑌, 𝜎)
⇔ 𝑓^{−1}(𝑉) ∈ 𝐺𝐿𝐶 (Χ, ) ∀ 𝑉 ∈ 𝐺𝐿𝐶 (𝑌, 𝜎).
Fuzzy GLCcontinuous:
𝑓: (Χ, ) (𝑌, 𝜎)
⇔ 𝑓^{−1}(𝑉) ∈ 𝐺𝐿𝐶 (Χ, ) ∀ 𝑉 ∈.
Chapter 3
3. Fuzzy semicompact spaces
Definition: A FTS X is said to be a fuzzy semicompact space if every fuzzy cover of X by fuzzy semiopen sets (such a cover will be called a fuzzy semiopen cover ofX ) has a finite sub cover.
A direct consequence of the above definition yields the following alternative formulation of a fuzzy semicompact space.
Theorem: A FTS X is fuzzy semicompact each family U of fuzzy semiclosed sets in X with finite intersection property (i.e., for every finite subcollection U_{0} ofU, U_{0} 0_{X}) has a nonnull intersection.
Theorem: A FTS X is fuzzy semicompact every prefilter base on X has a fuzzy semi cluster point.
Proof: Let X be fuzzy semicompact and let E{F_{} :} be a prefilter base on X having no fuzzy semicluster point. LetxX. Corresponding to each nN (here and hereafter N denotes the set of natural numbers), there exists a semiqnbd U_{x}^{n}of the fuzzy point x_{1}_{/}_{n} and an
n
Fx such that U_{x}^{n}qF_{x}^{n}. Since U_{x}^{n}(X)11/n, we haveU_{x}(x)1, where }.
:
{U n N
U_{x} _{x}^{n} Thus U {U_{x}^{n}:nN,xX} is a fuzzy semiopen cover ofX . SinceX is fuzzy semicompact, there exist finitely many members U_{x}^{n}_{1}^{1},U_{x}^{n}_{2}^{2},...,U_{xk}^{nk}of U such that
.
1 1X
ni xi k
i U
_{} If FEsuch that FF_{x}^{n}_{1}^{1}F_{x}^{n}_{2}^{2}...F_{xk}^{nk}, then Fq1_{X}. Consequently, F0_{X} and this contradicts the definition of a prefilter base.
Definition: A fuzzy point x_{} in a FTS X is called a complete semi accumulation point of a fuzzy setAinX if and only if for each semiqnbd U ofx_{}, supA{yX :A(y)U(y)1}, where for a subsetB ofX , by B we mean, the cardinality of B.
Theorem: A necessary condition for a FTSX to be fuzzy semicompact is that every fuzzy set A inX with supA N_{0} has a complete semi accumulation point.
Proof: LetAbe a fuzzy set in a fuzzy semicompact spaceX such that
 0
sup
 A N ,
And if possible, suppose A has no complete semi accumulation point inY. Then for eachxX and nN, there is a semiqnbd U_{x}^{n}of the fuzzy point x_{1}/n such that
.
 sup

 } 1 ) ( ) ( : {
 xX A x U_{x}^{n} x A
Now, since U_{x}^{n}(x)1/n1, it follows that }
, :
{U_{x}^{n} xX nN is a fuzzy cover ofX by fuzzy semiopen sets. As X is fuzzy semicompact, there exist a finite subset {x_{1},x_{2},...,x_{n}}ofX and finitely many positive integers n_{1},n_{2},...,n_{m}such that U_{i}^{m}_{}_{1}U_{xi}^{ni} 1_{X}.
Now, sup ^{k} 1
k
n
Ux
A
x , for some K(1<K<m)
U ^{k}(x)A(x)1
k
n x
x y X A y U_{x}^{n}^{k} y A n_{k}
k
{ : ( ) ( ) 1}
As, ni
m i
k AU
n
A _{}_{1} , we have
ni
m
i AU
A _{1}
sup _{} But, AU  supA
nk for i=1,2,…,m. Thus,
 sup





max
1
1 AU AU A
U _{i}
m i n m
i i
Hence, we get
 sup



 sup
 A U _{1}AU A
ni
m
i
_{}
It is a contradiction. This proves our theorem.
Chapter 4
4. Fuzzy semicompact sets
Definition: A fuzzy set A in a FTS X is said to be:
1. A fuzzy compact set, if every fuzzy open cover ofA has a finite subcover forA.
2. A fuzzy nearly compact set, if every fuzzy regular open cover ofA has a finite subcover for A.
3. A fuzzy sclosed set, if every fuzzy semiopen cover ofA has a semiproximate subcover for A.
4. A fuzzy almost compact set, if every fuzzy open cover ofA has a finite proximate subcover forA.
5. A fuzzy rigid set, if for every fuzzy open cover U ofA, there exists a finite subfamily U_{0} of Usuch that Aintcl(U_{0}).
6. A fuzzy ^{*}rigid, if for every semiopen cover UofA, there exists a finite subfamily U_{0}of U such that Ascl({sclU:UU_{0}}).
Theorem: If A is a Fs*Cset in a FTS X and f :X Yis fuzzy irresolute then f(A)is a Fs*Cset in the FTS Y.
Proof: For each fuzzy semiopen cover {V_{} :} of f(A)inY,{f ^{}^{1}(V_{} :} is a fuzzy semiopen cover ofA inX . Hence,
),
1(
0
f V
A _{}_{} ^{} for some finite subset _{0}of .
Then,
. )
( ))
( (
)
( 0 0 0
1
1
f V ff V V
f A
f _{}_{} ^{} ^{} _{}_{} _{}_{}
Thus f(A) is a Fs*Cset inY .
Chapter 5
5. Semi*connectednessnin Fuzzy TopologicalnSpaces:
Definition 5.1: LetAnbe a subsetnof a fuzzy topologicalnspaceX . The generalizednclosure of A is definednas the intersectionnof all gclosed setsncontainingA and is denotednbyCl*(A). A subsetnB of a fuzzyntopological spaceX isncalled gclosed, if Cl(B)U whenever BU andnU is openninX .
Definition 5.2: AnsubsetAofna fuzzy topologicalnspace 𝑋 is callednsemi*open if ))
(
*( A Int Cl
A .
Definition 5.3: AnsubsetA of a fuzzyntopological space 𝑋 isncalled semi*regular ifnit is both semi*opennand semi*closed.
Definition 5.4: Let A bena subset ofX . Then thensemi*closure ofA isndefined as the intersectionnof all semi*closednsets containingA andnis denoted bys*Cl(A).
Definition 5.5: AnsubsetA of a fuzzyntopological spacesX , thensemi*frontier ofA isndefined bys*Fr(A)s*Cl(A)\s*Int(A).
Definition 5.6: Anfunction f :X Y is saidnto be
(i) semi*continuousnif f ^{}^{1}(V) isnsemi*open inX fornevery open setnV in Y. (ii) semi*irresolutenif f^{}^{1}(V) isnsemi*open in X fornevery semi*open setnV in Y
Theorem 5.7: Let f :X Y bena function. Then
(i) fnis semi*continuousnif and onlynif f ^{}^{1}(V) isnsemi*closed in X fornevery closed setnV in Y.
(ii) f isnsemi*irresolute if and onlynif f^{}^{1}(V) isnsemi*closed in X fornevery semi* closednset V in Y.
Definition 5.8: A fuzzyntopological space X isnsaid to bensemi*connected if X cannotnbe expressed asnthe union ofntwo disjoint nonemptynsemi*open sets inX .
Theorem 5.9: Everynopen set isnsemi*open.
Theorem 5.10: Everynsemi*open set isnsemiopen.
Theorem 5.11: LetAbena subset ofna fuzzyntopological space 𝑋. ThenAisnsemi*regular if and onlynifs*Fr(A).
Theorem 5.12: Ifna fuzzy topologicalnspaceX is semi*connected, thannit is connected.
Proof: LetX bensemi*connected. Suppose, X isnnot connected. Thennby definition
ofnconnected space, we cannsay thatA,B&AB, such that X AB. Where, A and B arenopen sets. By Theorem 5.9, we cannsay thatAandB arensemi*open sets. Thisnis a contradictionntoX isnsemi*connected. Hence, the fuzzyntopological spaceX isnconnected.
Theorem 5.13: Ifna fuzzy topologicalnspaceX is semiconnected, thannit is semi*connected.
Proof: Letnthe fuzzy topologicalnspaceX be semiconnected. LetX isnnot semi*connected.
Thennby Definition 5.8, we cannsay thatA,B&AB, suchnthatX AB. Where AandBarensemi*open sets. By Theoremn5.10, wencan say thatAandB arensemiopen sets.
This isna contradiction toX isnsemiconnected. Hence, fuzzyntopological spaceX isnsemi* connected.
Theorem 5.14: Anfuzzy topological spacenis a semi*connectednspace if and onlynif the only semi*regularnsubsets ofX aren andX .
Necessity: Supposenthe fuzzy topologicalnspaceX is semi*connected. LetAbena nonempty propernsubset ofX thatnis semi*regular. ThenAand X \A arennonempty semi*opennsets and X A(X \A).
This isna contradiction tonour assumptionnthatX is semi*connected.
Sufficiency: SupposeX AB.A,B&AB.A and B arensemi*open sets.
Then, AX \B is semi*closed. Thus,A isnnonempty proper subsetnthat is semi*regular.
This isna contradiction tonour assumption. Hence, our theorem is proved.
Theorem 5.15: A fuzzyntopological spaceX isnsemi*connected if every semi*
continuousnfunction ofX into andiscrete spaceYwith atnleast two points isna constant function.
Proof: Let f be ansemi*continuous function of thensemi*connected space intonthe discrete spaceY. Then forneach yY,f ^{}^{1}({y})is ansemi*regular setnofX . SinceX isnsemi*
connected f ^{}^{1}({y})orX. If f^{}^{1}({y})yY,thennf ceases tonbe a function. Therefore X
y
f ^{}^{1}({ }) forna unique y_{0}Y . Thisnimplies f(x){y_{0}} andnhence f is anconstant function.
Theorem 5.16: A fuzzyntopological spaceX isnsemi*connected if andnonly if everynnon empty propernsubset ofX hasnnonempty semi*frontier.
Proof: Supposenthat the fuzzyntopological spaceX isnsemi*connected. LetA be annonempty proper subsetnofX . We claimnthats*Fr(A). On thencontrary, lets*Fr(A).
Then by Theorem 5.11,Aisnsemi*regular subset ofX .BynTheorem 5.14,X isnnot semi* connected,nwhich is ancontradiction.
Conversely, supposenthat every nonemptynproper subset ofX hasna nonemptynsemi* frontier. We claimnthatX is semi*connected. On thencontrary, supposeX is notnsemi*
connected. By Theorem 5.14,X hasna nonempty propernsubsetA, which isnsemi*regular. By Theorem 5.11, s*Fr(A), whichnis a contradiction tonour assumption. Hence, the
fuzzyntopological spaceX isnsemi*connected.
Theorem 5.17: Let f :X Ybe ansemi*continuous surjection andnthe fuzzy topologicalnspaceX be semi*connected. ThennYis connected.
Proof: Let f :X Ybe semi*continuousnsurjection and the topologicalnspaceX be a semi* connected. Let V bena clopen subsetnofY. By Definition 5.6 (i) and Theorem 5.7 (i), f ^{}^{1}(V) isnsemi*regular inX . SinceX isnsemi*connected f ^{}^{1}(V)orX. HenceV orY. Thisnproves Y is connected.
Theorem 5.18: Let f :X Ybe anfuzzy semi*irresolutensurjection. IfX is anfuzzy semi* connected, thenYisnso.
Proof: Let f :X Ybe fuzzynsemi*irresolute surjectionnand X be anfuzzy semi*connected.
Let V bena subset ofYthatnis semi*regular innY. By definition 5.6 (ii) and Theorem 5.7 (ii), )
1( V
f ^{} isnsemi*regular inX . SinceX isnfuzzy semi*connected, f^{}^{1}(V)orX. Hence, orY
V . Thisnproves Y is fuzzynsemi*connected.
Chapter 6 6. FUZZYNWEAKLYCOMPACTNSPACES
In thisnchapter we define setsnfuzzy weaklycompact relativento a topologicalnspace and investigatenthe relationship betweennsuch sets and fuzzynweaklycompact subspaces.
6.1 Definition. Anfuzzy subset S isnsaid to be fuzzynregular open (resp. fuzzynregular closed) ifnint(cl(S))= S (resp. cl(int(S))=S).
6.2 Definition. Anfuzzy open covern{V:L} of annfts is saidnto be fuzzynregular if for eachnL there existsna nonempty fuzzynregular closed set F innX such thatnFV and Xn=
U{int (F):L}
6.3 Definition. Annfts X isnsaid to be fuzzynweaklycompact (resp. fuzzynalomostcompact) if everynfuzzy regular (resp. fuzzynopen) cover ofnX has a finitensubfamily whose fuzzynclosures cover X. Itnis clear thatnevery fuzzy almostcompatnspace is fuzzynweaklycompact.
A fuzzynsubset S of thenfts X isnsaid to be fuzzynweaklycompact if S isnfuzzy weakly compact asna fuzzy subspacenof X.
6.4 Definition. A fuzzynsubset S of annfts X isnsaid to be fuzzynweaklycompact relative to X if forneach cover {V:L} ofnS by fuzzynopen sets of X satisfyingnthe condition () :
() For eachnL, there existsna nonempty fuzzynregular closed set F of X suchnthat FVnand S U{int (F):L}.
therenexists a finite subsetnLo of L suchnthat S{cl(V):Lo}.
6.5 Definition. Annfts X is said to be fuzzynnearly compact ifnevery regular fuzzynopen cover of X hasna finite fuzzynsubcover.
Let A bena fuzzynsubspace of an fts X and S benany fuzzy subsetnof A. Innthis section clA(S) (resp.nintA(S)) denotesnthe fuzzy closuren(resp. fuzzyninterior) of S innthe subspace A.
6.6 Theorem. IfnA is a fuzzynweaklycompact subspacenof a space X, then A isnfuzzy weakly compact relativento X.
Proof. Let {U:L} be a fuzzyncover of A by fuzzynopen subsets of X satisfyingncondition (*) of Definition 6.4. Thennfor each L therenexists a nonempty fuzzynregular closed sets F such that FU and A{int(U):L}. Forneach L, int(F)∩A and U∩A arenfuzzy open in A and (F)∩A isnfuzzy closed in A. The familyn{U∩A:L} is fuzzynopen cover ofnA.
Forneach L we have clA(int(F)∩A)F∩AU∩A. Moreover, wenhave. A = U{int(F)∩A:L} and (int(F) ∩A)intA(clA(int(F)∩A )). Since clA(int(F)∩A) is fuzzynregular closed in A, {U∩A:L} is a fuzzynregular cover of the fuzzynsubspace A.
There existsna finite subset Lo of L suchnthat A= U{clA(U∩A):Lo}. Sincen(clA(U∩A))
clA(U) forneach Lo, wenobtain AU{clA(U):Lo}. Thisnshows that A is fuzzynweakly
compact relative tonX. This completesnthe proof of Theorem 6.6.
6.7 Theorem. Ifnevery proper fuzzynregular closed subsetnof an fts X is fuzzynweaklycompact relative to X, then X isnfuzzy weaklycompact.
Proof. Let {U:L} bena fuzzy regularncover of X. Then forneach L there existsna nonempty fuzzy regularnclosed set F in X suchnthat FU and X={int(F):L}.
Choosenand fix oL. Let K=Xint(F_{}_{o}); then K isnfuzzy regular closednin X and K
U{int.(F):L{o}}. Therefore, {U:L{o}} is a fuzzyncover of K by fuzzynopen sets of X satisyingn(*) of Definition 3.5.4 and hencenfor some finite subsetnLo of L we have
KU{clA(U):Lo}. Thus, wenobtain X = K Uint(
F_{}o)= KUcl(
V_{}o)= Ucl{(
V_{}o):LoU{o}}
This showsnthat X is fuzzynweaklycompact. This completes the proof of Theorem 6.7.
6.8 Corollary. Ifnevery proper fuzzynregular closed subsetnof a space X is fuzzynweakly compact, then X is fuzzynweaklycompact.
Proof. The proof follows from Theorems 6.6 and 6.7.
6.9 Theorem. Let X bena fuzzy weaklycompactnspace. If A is anfuzzy clopen subset of X, then A isnfuzzy weaklycompact relative to X.
Proof. Let {U:L} be a fuzzyncover of A by fuzzynopen sets of X satisfying thencondition (*) of Definition 6.4. Assume that (XA)Ø. Since A isnfuzzy clopen in X, (XA) is also fuzzynclopen in X. Thereforenthe family {U:L}U{(XA)} is anfuzzy regular covernof X.
Since X is fuzzynweaklycompact there existsna finite subset Lo of L suchnthat XU{cl(U):Lo} Ucl(XA)=U{cl(U):Lo}Ucl(XA) Therefore, we
obtainnAU{cl(U):Lo}. This completes the proof of Theorem 6.9.
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