A STUDY ON THE AIR POLLUTION OF JAIPUR CITY IN THE PRESENT SCENARIO Kalpana Choudhary
Research Scholar, Department of Geography, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur
Abstract - The majority of the world's most polluted cities returned to normal during the COVID-19 shutdown, but since then, the pollution has only gotten worse. Today, air pollution in Rajasthan is a major concern for residents, particularly those who live close to industrial zones. Numerous lung disorders are brought on by gases that include different contaminants. Rajasthan is an arid region with strong windflows, making it exceedingly easy for contaminants to spread. Based on data provided by the “central pollution control board”, comparisons between Jaipur and its neighbouring cities of Ajmer, Dausa, and Kota are done. Different factors, such as the amount of contaminants in the air, their size, how they affect us during the day and at night, etc. are being compared. Compared to rural areas, the air quality in cities appears to be very poor. Additionally, it appears that due to less traffic at night, there is less air pollution. Data is compared during the day and at night, and both tabular and graphical representations are provided.
Keywords: Air Pollution, Jaipur, Air quality index, Rajasthan, Suspended Particulate Matter, Pollution Control Board.
One of the finest kings of the Kachhawaha line, the astronomer Sawai Jai Singh, created the city of Jaipur in 1727 AD, nestled amid the rough hills of the Aravallis and affectionately known as the
"Pink City." The pink colour was originally designed to evoke the red sandstone architecture of Mughal cities; it was later repainted in 1876 during the visit of the Prince of Wales. The city stands out among older Indian cities for the regularity and width of its streets, which are divided into sectors by broad streets.
Our ecology is being harmed by a large number of enterprises and cars' effluents. It is clear that many people are afflicted with conditions relating to the lungs. The level of pollution varies significantly throughout the city depending on the time of day, the weather, and the sampling interval.
According to data provided by the CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board), locations with a high concentration of enterprises have high pollution levels. To make it simple to understand, the air quality is divided into simple categories like satisfactory or hazardous. Health- related effects are also mentioned.
Observers measure the quantity of different gases and the size of the particles. Numerous hazardous gases, including sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, are monitored and
analysed.1Particles are measured and compared across cities based on their sizes, such as PM10 and PM2.5. Using AQB's most up-to-date data, we compare the air quality in many cities around Rajasthan, both during the day and at night (air quality bureau). The differences between a city's industrial and residential districts are analysed using a variety of metrics.2
Due to its direct influence on human health, air pollution has become one of the most pressing environmental challenges in both developed and developing nations. “According to a report (2021), 22 Indian cities are in the top 30 most polluted cities of the world and they are Ghaziabad, Bulandshahar, BisrakhJalalpur, Noida, Greater Noida, Kanpur, Lucknow, Meerut, Agra, and Muzaffarnagar in Uttar Pradesh, Bhiwari in Rajasthan, Faridabad, Jind, Hisar, Fatehabad, Bandhwari, Gurugram, Yamuna Nagar, Rohtak and Dharuhera in Haryana, and Muzaffarpur in Bihar.” The majority of the cities included in that section are major manufacturing hubs.
When compared to other cities, those on this list are expanding at a far faster rate in terms of population, technical
1“RRECL (2015). Biomass fuel supply study (Rajasthan) for Rajasthan Renewable Energy Corporation Limited Prepared by ABI energy consultancy services private limited. Rajasthan Renew. Energy Corp. Limited, Jaipur, (22).”
2“Singh, A., (2011). Municipal Solid Waste Management in Jaipur: Current Status and Way forward”
applications, and economic factors. There is no city more polluted than New Delhi.
Ghaziabad is second only to Xinjiang, China, as the most polluted city in the world.
In general, Rajasthan is a dry region with strong daytime winds and rapid pollution dispersal. Kota, on the other hand, has a nuclear power station next to the Chambal River, which might explain the city's alarmingly high levels of pollution and the heavy concentration of crop-damaging ash in the area around the facility.
The industrial revolution has led to increased pollution levels, which has reduced air quality relative to 2008.
Bhiwadi is well-known across Rajasthan as a region with very high pollution levels due to its many factories. Since Jaipur, the state capital, and the surrounding regions are home to a sizable number of factories, their concentrations of different pollutants are being analysed here. To illustrate the contribution of cars, we compare daytime and nighttime AQI readings. There is a comparison being made between the impact of different particle sizes of pollution. Central Pollution Board data from the past few years is being analysed.
Increased urbanisation, industrial pollution, “traffic congestion, and poor road conditions affect Jaipur much as they do other Indian towns. Bedsides these, Jaipur is also a tourist place.
Because of these causes, city air quality deteriorated. Strict restriction on all the human activities during COVID-19 shutdown caused to improvement in the air quality globally. During the COVID-19 lockdown, several authors also noted an appreciable rise in Jaipur's air quality.
But immediately after the lockdown, the monitoring station built by the Governments reveals a spike in all the criterion pollutants in all the main cities as well as in Jaipur. Therefore, the current research was carried out to analyse the air quality of Jaipur City following the COVID-19 shutdown using Air Quality Index (AQI) (AQI). The collected findings give baseline data that illustrate the rate of rise in air pollutants in Jaipur City.”
Jaipur city's ambient air quality was studied by the “government of Rajasthan
and monitored monthly at three places (BadiChaupar, ChotiChaupar, and Bhankrota) for five months (October 2020 - February 2021). Initiated between 7:00 AM and 11:00 AM, the air quality monitoring programme used a Respirable Dust Sampler (RDS) with a gaseous sample attachment to collect data in accordance with the conceptual guidelines and common methodology established by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). The RDS (Envirotech-ETC APM 415 BL) was installed at 1.5 m, the optimal height for breathing. The filter papers were folded longitudinally after monitoring, stored in plastic zip bags, and rushed to the lab for quick oven drying and weighing.”
2 AIR POLLUTION SCENARIO IN THE CITY OF JAIPUR
Jaipur has a highly polluted urban environment, with high levels of PM10 and PM2.5 pollution. Most of the pollutants cohabit and have shared origins, however there are a number of major contributors both within and outside of Jaipur that add to PM10 and PM2.5 in the air. Source contributions to ambient air concentrations are discussed in Chapter 5, whereas the emission inventory is presented in Chapter 4. There are seasonal differences in the sources of PM10 and PM2.5 that contribute to ambient air quality, as determined by the complete source apportionment research.
2.1 Sources of Emissions
Transportation (including cars and trains), business, industry, household, government, and transportation all contribute to Jaipur's air pollution.
Fugitive non-point sources are also a major factor. “For transport of men, mostly public transport (buses), tempos and taxies fulfil the transport requirement for the city.” Coal, LPG, and wood are just few of the fuels that may be used at home to provide heat and light. When it comes to manufacturing, many less-than-major operations contribute significantly to pollution levels in the atmosphere. In majority of the institutions and workplaces, the diesel generators are employed during the time of power outage.
2.2 An upward pattern this winter Even though the “seasonal difference is not as large as in the larger Indo-Gangetic plain, the pollution levels predictably increase every winter due to inversion, colder temperature, and slower wind. This winter, the Indo-Gangetic Plain was engulfed in a choking cloud of pollution, despite the lockdown's spectacular summer reduction in pollutants. The 2020 winter pollution in Jaipur has witnessed increased number of days in
„Poor‟ AQI category for PM2.5 - in fact the number of days has more than doubled, compared to 2019.” The periods of poor air quality have become more frequent and severe in recent years. The air quality in practically every city and village in Rajasthan has worsened this winter.3 2.3 Ozone: a new threat in the making While the present policy emphasis is on particle pollution, the available data reveals that ozone is starting to climb. The annual number of days where ozone levels are above or below the 8-hour standard has been rising in several cities in Rajasthan. Since 2018, all days have been compliant only in Udaipur. The percentage of subpar days is greatest in Jaipur. However, it is noteworthy to note that places with high levels of NO2 also tend to have low levels of ozone, and vice versa. According to established scientific theory, ozone depletes in high NO2 locations due to a subsequent reaction.
Although ozone isn't released into the atmosphere directly, it is produced indirectly when volatile organic compounds react with NOx in the presence of sunlight and heat. However, primary gases from combustion sources must be managed if ozone levels are to be reduced. “This is a highly reactive gas that has severe health risk. This necessitates substantial activity on combustion sources to reduce gaseous emissions.” The IIT Kanpur study found that secondary particulate matter can account for 21 percent of PM2.5 concentrations in the winter, so this is also necessary for their regulation.
3“Nagar, P.K., Sharma, M. and Das, D. (2019) A New Method for Trend Analyses in PM10 and Impact of Crop Residue Burning in Delhi, Kanpur and Jaipur, India. Urban Climate 27:
3 FUTURE PROSPECTS FOR RAJASTHAN
The state of Rajasthan is one of those in India that has taken the initiative to conduct a systematic analysis of the air quality situation. If it can muster the necessary resources, it can capitalise on the current upswing. The initiatives in place at the moment are briefly described below. 124 cities have been labelled
"non-attainment cities" by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) due to their persistent failure to satisfy air quality targets. Jaipur, Jodhpur, Kota, Alwar, and Udaipur are just a few of the 122 cities that make up India's Rajasthan. Despite conforming to requirements for SO2 and NOx, their PM10 and PM2.5 emissions are greater than allowed. Another city in the Alwar area, Bhiwadi, has been named a hotspot due to the prevalence of polluting enterprises there. The state is expected to reveal more hotspots if monitoring infrastructure is upgraded.
In 2016, the “Rajasthan State Pollution Control Board (RSPCB) enlisted the help of the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kanpur” to conduct an in-depth investigation in a few of these urban centres.4 The study's ultimate goal was to compile an exhaustive emission inventory detailing the causes and levels of air pollution. The investigations revealed that road dust was a major factor in the state's air pollution, which is typically overlooked by policymakers.
For instance, dust accounted for 46% of PM2.5 emissions on Jaipur Road and 48% in Bhiwadi. IIT Kanpur conducted a research in January 2020 and found 10 areas in Jaipur with very high dust emissions. Together with the non-profit Centre for Science and Environment, we are developing plans of action at the local level (CSE). Jodhpur, Kota Alwar, and Udaipur are also planning CSE-assisted activities similar to this one.5
4“Dr Mukesh Sharma, Air Quality Assessment, Trend Analysis, Emission Inventory and Source Apportionment Study in Jaipur City, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, January 2020, https://environment.rajasthan.gov.in/content/dam/environment/R PCB/EnvironmentalReport/Final-Report-Source-
5“Centre for Science and Environment, Strategies for Ensuring Clean Air in Rajasthan (with Special Focus On Jaipur Region), December 2020, Centre for Science and Environment, 2020,
4 CONTROL OF ORIGIN VARIANTS It's important to keep in mind the extensive number of sectors and individual sources that contribute to air pollution. In addition, future projections of higher emission levels need investigation of a range of air pollution mitigation strategies.
Hotels/Restaurant:The city of Jaipur is home to around 1500 large hotels and restaurants (those with more than a 10-person capacity for diners) (mostly in tandoors). Fly-ash, a byproduct of PM emission, is a pollutant. All eateries with more than 10 seats are encouraged to stop using coal and switch to electricity or natural gas. Stopping coal consumption will reduce this source's PM10 (351 kg/d) and PM2.5 (218 kg/d) emissions by 70%.
Ash and other waste products from the tandoor and other sources are also routinely dumped along the road. There will be more dust from the roads as a result of this. The Jaipur Municipal Corporation may put restrictions on this source and ensure that ash and residues are disposed of correctly. Jaipur Municipal Corporation, the Department of Food, Civil Supplies, and Consumer Affairs, and oil companies may all enforce regulations on business licences and clean fuel (Indian Oil, HP, etc.).6
Domestic Sector:While 81% of Jaipur's homes use LPG for cooking, 19% resort to other fuels including wood, agricultural waste, cow dung, kerosene, and coal (Census-India, 2012). To make the city completely LPG-fueled, it is necessary to make the LPG accessible to the remaining 21 percent of homes. The household sector's PM10 (317kg/d) and PM2.5 (257 kg/d) emissions are predicted to decrease by 85% and 84%, respectively, as a result of this measure. “Oil companies (Indian Oil, HP, etc.) and the Department of Food, Civil Supplies, and Consumer
6“Nama, M.,NandeshwarLata, M., Nagar, B. (2008). A Statistical Data Analysis of Road Traffic Accidents in Jaipur City. Int. Res. J. Eng. Technol. 9001, 853–860.”
Affairs should work together to create a time-bound plan for each family.”
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Burning:The practise of burning trash should be absolutely prohibited and enforced in every way possible. Effective collection of MSW and disposal at the research landfill site will need the construction of infrastructure (including access to distant and crowded locations). The municipal corporation of Jaipur should initiate a systematic MSW collecting procedure in each ward.
Particular care must be taken in places like grocery stores, restaurants, and apartment complexes where incinerating municipal solid waste (MSW) is frequent. Daily and monthly MSW mass balance should be calculated by an established process. Jaipur Municipal Corporation is responsible for preventing and eliminating all forms of trash fires.7
Demolition:Emissions from C&D projects are usually considered transitory or intermittent. These kinds of pursuits occur often in an industrial setting. According to Chapters 4 and 5, this is one of the most major sources of ground-level emissions and PM10, and it remains a considerable contributor throughout the year. This source is especially noticeable outside the city limits. The C&D Waste Management Rules, 2016 must be followed by every construction and demolition project. It is standard practise in major metropolitan areas to establish a C&D waste recycling plant if one is needed.
Soil and Road Dust:From chapter 4, it is clear that soil and road dust are a major contributor to PM10 and PM2.5 emissions and a stable source of emissions overall. There is a wide range of silt loads, from 4 g/m 2 to 32 g/m 2. The high levels of road dust emission in the industrial sector are consistent with
7“Singh, A., (2011). Municipal Solid Waste Management in Jaipur: Current Status and Way forward”
the high levels of vehicle traffic in the region. It is recommended that high-traffic roads be kept in good condition, with paved carpet and shrubs planted along the road divider and in the unpaved space next to the wayside. “Badichopad, YadgaarChauraha, Agra Road, TriveniChauraha, the Jaipur–
Kishangarh route, and Pradhan Guest House were among the areas where silt loads were very high on the roadways.”
Vehicles:Emissions of CO, NOx, PM10, and PM2.5 from vehicles are rather high. Diesel vehicles (trucks, buses, LCVs, autos, etc.) contribute a significant amount of PM10, PM2.5 CO, SO2, and NOx to the air we breathe. Over 80% of the daily vehicle emission of PM10 and PM2.5 comes from diesel vehicles, mostly trucks and buses. Therefore, the most effective means of regulation would be the conversion to CNG (compressed natural gas) fuel for local transportation vehicles like buses and LCVs (light commercial vehicles). Oil companies (Indian Oil, HP, etc.) and the Department of Food, Civil Supplies, and Consumer Affairs need to work together.
While studies show that air quality is bad in certain urban areas, there are also numerous places where it is rather high.
Due to a lower volume of traffic at night, air pollution levels are greater during the day. The quantity of air pollution is greater in industrial locations than in residential ones. The government should enforce rigorous regulations on various businesses, push for vehicle improvements, and encourage the use of electric cars. Governments and non- profits alike should lead awareness campaigns. The number of trees planted has to increase. Kota city's pollution levels are very high near the thermal power plant, but the government of India is making strides to reduce emissions and prevent further damage to the ecosystem and the spread of diseases caused by exposure to polluted air. But there are still certain deficiencies, and these need to be addressed.
6 ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEILLANCE 1. There has to be a mechanism in
place to keep tabs on the state of the environment so that hotspots of pollution can be identified and dealt with as soon as possible.
2. It's recommended that a GRAP System (Graded Response Action Plan) be created such that: It's a contingency plan that helps pollution control authorities take prompt, effective measures in response to unexpected drops in air quality.
3. As road dust is a significant emission source for particulate matter, the Pollution Control Board should conduct routine inspections to determine its current state.
4. The data of companies or sectors creating pollution may be detected if visual emissions are informed and carefully recorded.
5. To complete the aforementioned tasks and ensure continuous monitoring, more personnel will be needed in the relevant departments.
6. Illegal nighttime operations in the industrial sector must be monitored.
The effects of pollution will be magnified because of the increased difficulty of dispersal throughout the night.
7. Due to its higher number of sunny days, Jaipur is an ideal site for a solar power plant. Jaipur needs more solar panels to power its business infrastructure and cut down on the use of expensive diesel generators.
7 WAY FORWARD
If these measures are implemented, urban air quality should improve.
Every week, the government should conduct an air quality check.
As many trees as feasible should be planted to control air pollution.
Industries that produce more pollution than allowed by regulations and permits should face severe consequences.
We should discourage the use of diesel cars and generators and promote those that run on
compressed natural gas. Vehicles powered by hydrogen gas would be one example of a green technology that has to be developed.
The city's existing air quality should be considered when issuing permits to companies.
Bicycling and public transportation should be encouraged to enhance air quality.
A device that can gather carbon from our environment and utilise it as fuel should be created, and there are many potential avenues for such study.
There is a great need for new technologies in the gasoline, glass, and other sectors that use large quantities of materials that contribute significantly to pollution.